passed away at Kurram in Afghanistan.
Bhai Mardana was born at Talwandhi to mother Lakho and fatherBadro
in Sanmat 1516. After becoming a Sikh of Guru Nanak, herighteously
earned the status of "Bhai". He accompanies Guru
Nanak Dev ji on his world trip and served as a key participant
inKirtan. He dies in 1591 in Karam Nagar on the banks of Karamriver
in Afghanistan. Guru Nanak, personally conducted the lastrights
for Mardana. As per his wishes no monument was erectedin his
remembrance. Since Mardana was a "Rabab" player,
heand all his descendents came to be known as Rababis. Mardana'swritings
are included in Guru Granth Sahib. He is recalled in twoSaloks
by Guru Nanak Dev Ji in Rag Bihagdha, see Paudhi 12.His role
during Guru Nanak's travels is well illustrated by thepopular
phrase "Mardana, Jagat Nu Taran Da Bahana" -Mardana,
a reason to save this world.
ninth, Guru Teg Bahadhur Ji Patshah Guru Teg Bahadhur was beheaded
in public at Chandni Chowk, Delhi by orders of the Mughal Emporer.
He was brought into the open place of execution in Chandni Chowk,
Delhi and beheaded around 11am. Guru Ji's dead body was cremated
by Lakhi at Rakab Ganj around 8pm. While Guru's severed head
was smuggled to Anandput Sahib by Bhai Jaita, a distance of
350 kilometeres that was covered in 5 days. Today is the actual
date of Guru Sahib's martyrdom, although it is observed on a
different date by Guru Khalsa Panth.
Kashmiri Pandits, led by Kirpa Das of Mattan (Martand), reached
Chak Nanki, Kahlur (old name of Anadpur Sahib). He appealed
to Guru Tegh Bahadhur for his help in against the prosecution
of Kashmiri Pandits by Aurangzeb's forces and resulting extinction
of hindu dharma. After appointing Gobind Rai as the next Guru,
Guru Tegh Bahadhur left for Delhi on July 11, 1675. After
Guruji's martyrdom, Pandit Kirpa Das stayed back and became
Kirpa Singh after taking amrit in 1699 and died fighting at
Chamkaur along with the two elder sahibjadas of Guru Gobind
When Guru Tegh Bahadhur sacrificed himself to save the Kashmiri
Pandits from extinction in 1675, Guru Gobind Singh put his
stamp on this truth by proclaiming "The Lord (Guru Tegh
Bahadhur) protected the sacred thread and the frontal mark
of the Hindus: He performed a great deed in the age of Kalyug."
However, it is strange that the Kashmiri Pandits did not build
any memorial in honour of Guruji. On the other hand the present
generation had started doubting the veracity of this event.
==> GURU TEGH BAHADUR (1621-1675): RAG SORATH
That man who in the midst of grief is free from grieving,
And free from fear, and free from the snare of delight,
Nor is covetous of gold that he knows to be dust,
Who is neither a backbiter nor a flatterer,
Nor has greed in his heart, nor vdnity, nor any worldly
Who remains at his centre unmoved by good and ill fortune,
Who indifferent to the world's praise and blame
And discards every wishful fantasy
Accepting his lot in the disinterested fashion,
Not worked upon by lust or by wrath,
In such a man God dwelleth.
The man on vjhom the Grace of the Guru alights
Understands the way of conduct:
His soul, 0 Nanak, is mingled with the Lord
As water mingles with water!
galaxy of immortal martyrs who laid down their precious lives
to keep ablaze the flame of faith and freedom, the name of
the Ninth Master, Guru Tegh Bahadur stands out radiantly prominent.
Doubtless, there have been prophets who sacrificed themselves
at the altar of their own religion, but the uniqueness of
the Ninth Master's martyrdom lies in the fact that he courted
death in defending the religion of the persecuted Hindus who
had sought his shelter when they were forced to choose between
death and Islam. Guru Tegh Bahadur, the second martyr Guru,
who was born at Amritsar in 1621, was the youngest son of
Guru Hargobind Sahib, the Sixth Master (1595-1645). Guru Har
Rai, the Seventh Master (1630-61), and Guru Hari Krishna,
the Eight Master (1656-1964): however, preceded him as Gurus.
He adorned the sacred throne of Guru Nanak from 1664 to 1675.
His installation as Guru enraged Dhirmal and the masands,
who were the most contentious claimants to the Guruship.
Bahadur toured the Punjab, particularly the Malwa region,
and Eastern India, to preach Sikhism. He also went to Assam
with Raja Ram Singh and stayed with him for nearly two years.
The Guru's family accompanied him on this trip, but, while
proceeding to Assam, he left his familly at Patna. It was
here that his only son Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708) was born.
While leaving Assam for the Punjab, Guru Tegh Bahadur broke
his journey at Patna for a short time and then returned to
the Punjab. He purchased land from the Raja of Kahloor at
Makhowal (Anandpur) and settled down there. From here he set
out on extensive missionary tours and attracted amongst others,
several Muslims to his faith.
theme of Guru Tegh Bahadur's sacred hymns is Nam Simran (concentration
on the Divine Name) and Guru Bhakti (adoration of the Guru).
One hundred and fifteen hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur are incorporated
in the Adi Granth.
clearly set forth his own definition of Giani (or the enlightened
one). In these compositions he has laid special stress on
vairag or detachment for the realisation of the lofty ideals
that distinguish the life of a BrahmGiani.
Guru Tegh Bahadur's ministry, Emperor Aurangzeb intensified
his fanatical plans for forcibly converting the Hindus to
Islam. This move had serious repercussions in Kashmir, and,
the learned Pandits of Kashmir came to Guru Tegh Bahadur to
seek refuge. The Guru advised them to go and tell Aurangzeb
that if he could persuade Guru Tegh Bahadur to embrace Islam,
they would all willingly become Muslims. This proposal appealed
to Aurangzeb, who had already hatched plans to bring to an
end Guru Tegh Bahadur's missionary activities, so, he at once
issued orders for his arrest.
along with some of his companions was finally brought to Delhi
and asked to convert to Islam or else face the penalty of
death. The Master averred that he would sacrifice his life
rather than give up his faith and his freedom of belief. Thus,
under Aurangzeb's orders, he was beheaded at the place now
called Sis Ganj in Delhi. His martyrdom was yet another challenge
to the Sikh conscience. It was realized then that there could
be no understanding between an insensate power imbrued with
blood and a proud people wedded to a life of peace with honour.
The sacrifice roused the devitalized Hindus from their supine
somnolence and gave them a hint of the power that comes from
self-respect and sacrifice. Guru Tegh Bahadur thus earned
the enduring sobriquet title of Hind-di-Chadar or the Shield
"Guru Granth Ratnavali," (pp. 70) by Dr. D.S. Mani,
Sardar Bakhshish Singh, and Dr. Gurdit Singh.
SHAHADAT GURU TEGH BAHADHUR: The Great Guru laid down his
life to secure the people the liberty of conscience. His martyrdom
was for the protection of human dignity, specifically the
right of everyone to practise his religion unhindered which
was denied to its people by the Mughal rulers of India. He
protested against the State's interference with the individual's
duty towards his faith. It was a declaration that any attempt
to create a unitary, monolithic society must be resisted.
It was a reiteration of the Sikh belief in an open and ethical
social ordwer and of teh Sikh principle of tolerance and acceptance
of diversity of faith and practice. This lesson is part of
the Sikh experience and teaching and no follower of thefaith
may contravene it. Forcible conversions to Islam was the order
of the day. Guru Sahib was presented with three choices; either
accept Islam, perform miracles, or accept death. Miracles
although recognized by Sikh faith, are actively discouraged.
Their exposition or display is considered arrogance - competing
with Vaaheguru's order. Therefore Guru Sahib accepted the
last option and laid down his life to protect human dignity
and the freedom of worship which was denied to its people
by the Mughal rulers of India. Forcible conversions to Islam
was the order of the day. Guru Sahib delibrately made this
choice to embrace a martyr's death in pursuit of his declared
objective to defend Hindu Dharma, further kindled the spark
to resort to the use of force of arms.
have built a mermorial at this place in honor of the Guru's
martydom for the cause of freedom to worship. This is the
actual date of Shahadat, although Guru Khalsa Panth observes
it on a different date (see description below).
of Guruji was unique in the history of the world. Wheras Guru
nank had publicly decalerd his opposition to the sacred thread
and tilak in his bani, the Ninth form, gave his head to establish
the right of Hindus to live according to the dictates of their
religion. This was indeed to establish Human rights about
which we hear so much today. All Sikh Gurus accepted the will
and wonder of Akal Purakh that there are countless civilisations
and cultures and every human being likes to live in his/her
own culture. Guru Gobind Singh has stated this very beautifully
in his Bachitar Natak, or the Wondrous Drama:
belive that they have become superior by accepting celibacy
or undertaking meditation away from habitation, by giving
up material comforts or by making themselves look different
by wearing matted hair or no hair. Other feel higher by
joining a particular sect of Islam. But the reality is that
followers of all religions are the same human beings. The
creater of all, provides for the needs of all humans. There
is one Lord of all and that Lord alone should be worshipped.
Do not remain ignorant and belive in anyone else except
the one Lord. All humanity is equal, each one of us carries
the reflection of the creator in us, we are all manifestations
of one creator."
was bestowed on Tenth Patshah, Guru Gobind Singh Ji. He bacme
Guru at the age of 9 when his father was tortured to death by
the ruling Mughals. From the age of 9 to 42 when he breathed
his last, life had been occupied fighting the Moghuls against
injustice and tyranny. Today is the actual date when Guru Sahib
was bestowed Guruship, though Guru Khalsa Panth observes it
on a different date.
==> GURU GOBIND SINGH JI (1666-1708), tenth Patshah of
the Sikh faith, was born on Saturday, Dec. 22, 1666 at Patna
Sahib to father Guru Tegh Bahadhur Patshah and Matta Gujri.
On, Nov. 11, 1675, he assumed Guruship at Anandpur Sahib.
"Rahao Gur Gobind" Salok Mahala 9
Since early childhood, Guru Sahib was keen on weapons and
their use. It is for this reason, that Guru Sahib became a
scholar on weapons and mastered their usage, at a very early
age. Guru Sahib continually emphasized scholarly works throughout
his life. As a results, scholars around the world traveled
long distances to participate and receive honors in his courts.
He was always surrounded by renowned scholars. One of Guru
Sahib's objective was to translate all scholarly works in
Gurmukhi and commissioned several such translations. His vision
of Sikh Kaum included a communion of scholars. In an attempt
to turn Anandpur Sahib as the center of knowledge, Guru Sahib
actively encouraged and sent Sikhs to study at various renowned
institutions in the world.
To uplift the suppressed people, Guru Sahib instituted the
tradition of Amrit during Vaisakhi diwan of sunmat 1756 at
KeshGadh Sahib. Further he established a communion of Amritdharis
(who received Amrit) and called it "Khalsa". Guru
Sahib, himself was the sixth member of the Khalsa order. Witnessing
the false practices and prevalent injustices, Guru Sahib propagated
the message of Guru Nanak so vigorously that the neighboring
hill rulers felt threatened. Without understanding either
his message or appreciating his objectives, these rulers suddenly
turned enemies and attacked on several occasions. Each time
Guru Sahib had to fight for his defense.
In sunmat 1761, the Turk forces sought Guru Sahib to leave
Anandpur Sahib under promises that were proven false through
subsequent events. Once Guru Sahib was out of Anandpur Sahib,
he was attacked and suffered heavy losses. The hard work of
52 poets, accumulated over the years, along with several commissioned
translations was burned by the enemies of knowledge. However,
Guru Sahib patiently but bravely faced the enemy and escaped
into the neighboring forest. Here with his influence, Guru
Sahib turned this ghost land into Saint land and the forest
into civilized Malwa. With his message of patience and valor,
Guru Sahib preached the importance of sacrifice and true knowledge.
He had four sons from Mata Jeeto and Sundari, namely, Baba
Ajit Singh, Baba Zujar Singh, Baba Zorawar Singh, and Baba
Fateh Singh Ji. All four sacrificed their lives to protect
and further the growth of the institutional plant sown by
After bestowing Guruship to Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Sahib
left this earth on Oct. 7, 1708, near the banks of Godawari
river in Nanded, Guru Gobind Singh bravely fulfilled the responsibilities
of Guruship and guided the Sikh Panth for 32 years, 10 months,
and 26 days. He spent a total of 41 years, 9 months, and 15
days during his visit to this earth.
-Ref. Mahan Kosh
Rahon was conquered by Baba Gurbakhash Singh (Banda Bahadhur).
==> BABA GURBAKHASH SINGH (BANDA BAHADHUR): born on KatakSudhi
13 sunmat 1727 to Rajput father Ramdev who was a resident
of the Rajori village in Jammu. He was named Lashman Dev by
his parents. Since childhood, he exhibited extremely fondness
for sanskrit literature and hunting. However, he plunged into
deep remorse after killing a pregnant deer. As a result he
discarded all his hunting tools and became a disciple of Vaesnav
JankiPrasad. He shed all his material wealth, started onto
the seekers path for enlightenment, and adopted the new name,
Wondering in search of enlightenment, when he traveled towards
south India and reached the banks of Godawari, he fell in
love with this beautiful new place. He established his Ashram
and started living here. In sunmat 1765, when Guru Gobind
Singh Ji reached Nandaedh, he was extremely impressed and
influenced by Guru's preaching. He offered himself as "Satguru
Da Banda" (Satguru's person). Guru Gobind Singh Ji introduced
him to Amrit and changed his name to Gurbakash Singh. However,
he remained popularly known in our Panth as "Banda".
To eradicate the prevalent injustices, Guru Gobind Singh
sent Baba GurBakhash Singh accompanied by the following five
GurSikhs to Punjab:
Singh went to Punjab in sunmat 1765 accompanied with a Hukamnama
from Guru Gobind Singh addressed to all the GurSikh. In this
Hukamnama, Guru Gobind Singh asked GurSikhs to help Baba Gurbakhash
Singh in his efforts. Before departure, Baba Gurbakhash Singh
received three arrows from Guru Gobind Singh and the following
celibate ("Jatt rakhana")
operate, and act under the dictates of Khalsa ("Khalsae
dae Anusari hokae rahna")
consider yourself to be Guru ("Aap nu Guru na manenna")
only after serving others ("Vartakae Shakana")
the orphas, poor, unprotected, helpless, destitute, or disolate.
("Anatha di sahiata karni")
Punjab, Gurbakash Singh strictly followed Guru Sahib's instructions
and successfully punish all who had previously mistreated
the Khalsa Panth. On the 1st Hadh sunmat 1767, after conquering
Sirhind, Wajir Khan was punished and eventually killed for
the mistreatment of Sahibzadas.
Gurbakash Singh became popular among the Khalsa Panth, his
self-godliness started awakening. As a result he started adopting
and engaging in practices that were against Gurmat. In sunmat
1771, Baba Gurbakhash Singh expressed desires to establish
his own Gadhi in Sri Harmindar Sahib and sought his self-worhsip.
He started a new slogan of "Sachae Sahib ki Fateh"
in contrast to the traditional "Vaaheguru Jee Kee Fateh".
This resulted in a severe split among Khalsa Panth. Those
following the principles as laid by Guru Gobind Singh came
to known as "TattKhalsa" while the followers of
Gurbakash Singh were known as "BandaiKhalsa". Today
there are very few Bandai Sikhs. They do not believe in any
other holy scriptures other than Sri Guru Granth Sahib. All
their practice are according to Gurmat principles.
Baba Gurbakhash Singh was cornered by the pursuing enemy forces
at "Gurdaspur de Gadhi". It is also popularly known
as Bhai Duni Chand di Hawaeli. After months of sustained attacks
from AbdalSamadKhan and others with a force of over 20,000,
Baba Gurbakhash Singh was arrested along with his companions
and taken to Delhi. He accepted Shahadat on Chaet Sudhi 1st
Singh Ji accepted Shahadat in Amritsar. The Sikh's attack on
returning Afgan forces from Ahmad Shah's 4th invasion infuriorated
Ahmed Shah. He sent and expedition against the Sikhs that resulted
in the destruction of Sri Harimandir Sahib. Subseqquently, the
Sikhs collected at Amritsar in Oct. 1757 to celebrate Diwali.
They were attacked repeatedly bu Jaham Khan, Governor of Punjab.
It is during these battles Baba Deep Singh Ji accepted Shahdat
reclaiming and preserving the sactity of Sri Harimandir Sahib.
==> BABA DEEP SINGH SHAHEED, known as Deepaa in his childhood,
was born on 14 Magh Sunmat 1737 to mother Mata Jeeonee and
father Bhai Bhagtoo at Paahoowind, Amritsar. He is remembered
as one of the most revered martyrs of sikh history.
He was influenced and introduced to amrit by Sri Guru Gobind
Singh Patshah. After partaking amrit, at the age of 20-22
years, Deepaa came to known as Baba Deep Singh. He learned
Gurmukhi and Gurbani from Bhai Mani Singh along with horseback
riding, archery and other arms training. Baba Deep Singh served
the Panth extremely well through :
several wars for the Panth. In 1709, he joined Baba Gurbakhash
Singh (Banda Bahadur) to fight in the battle of Sirhind
and Sadhora. In 1746, Deewan Lakhpat Rai attacked Sikhs
at Kahnoowal jungles and ordered to set the whole jungle
on fire. Baba Deep Singh, also there, somehow escaped
and fought back at the Beaas River bank, and finally reaching
Malwa. This incidence is known as "Chotta Ghalughara"
and distribution of hand-written beadhs of Sri Guru Granth
Sahib from Takhat Dumdama Sahib.
for the independence and sovereign sanctity of Sri Harmandir
Sahib following its distruction by Jahan Khan, who was
general to Tamur Shah, Subaedar of Punjab and son of Ahmad
of Sunmat 1817, Baba Deep Singh fell near Rampur, while fighting
the mughals to free Sri Harmandir Sahib. His head was severed
from its body. However, Baba Deep Singh picked up his head
and kept fighting until he reached the Parkiramas of Sri Harmandir
Sahib. In honor of such noble sacrifice, Gurudwara Shaheed
Ganj is established in Amritsar, where GurSangat gathers on
a regular daily basis. Baba Deep Singh was among the leaders
of our Shaheedi Misls.