Sunday, October 23, 2016
Gateway to Sikhism


Do We Know Latest World Religious Guru- Sikh Canon's Doctrine?

by Raja Mrigendra Singh, Ph.D, Patiala (now in New York)

Holy Guru Nanak IV declared:
"2.0 Councillors (Pancho)! Those who hide their guru are not good persons.
They lose all profits inclusive of capital.
Originally, Nanak proclaimed (doctrine) Inductive-Deductively (agam-nigam)
Perfect Guru (God)'s Revelations (time to time) befell Him from above.
Such Perfect-Complete God's praise pleased all (faithful) Guru-Sikhs:
But, such a (blessed) hour was not at hand to faithless (manmukh) ones."1

The Guru-Sikh Religion is the latest world religion.2 According to all major-minor Holy Canon's internal evidence, its founder was Divine Guru Nanak (1469-1539). He formally ordained a successor who's Canonical Consecration's Convention continued to fulfill old prophecies to the tenth and last Holy (human) Guru Gobind Singh (1675-1708).3 Historically, all came at the fag-end of ancient Oriental Indo-Semitic religious canons and fulfilled their prophecies ordained earlier like unto myriad prophets4, who are verified in the Guru-Sikh Religious major-minor Holy Canons.

All ten Holy Gurus from the very outset over the last five centuries, time and again personally ordained ecclesiastics (bishops, ministers, preachers, etc.) to disseminate divinely revealed doctrine. That unbroken convention continues until now. The tenth and the last Holy Guru, Gobind Singh, personally ordained ministers and expanded their number to over one hundred; but three Holy Gurus rebel descendant Sikh cults and 55 liaison Masands (Masnad-I Ali) ministries were "anathematized."5 Also most Masands and all six Holy Gurus Fauj were totally disbanded on Solar Indian New Year, Baisakhi, 1699; great holy occasion. On that day's elimination, old conventional ecclesiastics, inclusive of new ministries, totaled about three dozen. Since that day, Guru-Sikhs spread all over South Asia, and, within the last two-and-a-half to three centuries, continue to develop over a few thousand centers with many branches, each officially registered

1. Guru Granth:Guru Nanak IV:p. 304 11.2-4; Guru Nanak III:P 1016 1.3; Guru Nanak V:p. 1302:16, etc.
2. Guru-Sikh Religion: not Sikh Religion/Sikh(ism) Doctrine is used here for many reasons; who's intent is to catch neo-Sikh eyes, attitude misguided by 16-20 per cent Christian missions reference to other world religions (dealt in another article) may take note: 1) There is no Sikh Religion. Sikh(s) follow their Guru. Hence, religion/doctrine is of the Guru. If it is of Sikhs: are they collectively the Guru? Or, who or where is their Guru?
3. Ibid:pp. 968:1-*8-13; 1401:19-; 1406:12, etc.; & Dasam Granth Bachitar Natak IV:1-*7-*9-10*; V:7-*8-10; & Bhai Gur Das. Var:I:x1vii:*1-3-; I;xlviii:1-*5-8* (cross ref:XXIX:xii:*5); Ref. Guru Rattan Mal Sao Sakhi:26, etc.
4. Ibid.:pp.307:15-19;968 :9;1117:6*7, etc., which can be furnished upon request.
5. Like unto a PALACE's mansion with a Hall with pillers and many suites and rooms, founder Holy Guru Nanak established 8 bishops (manjidar). Holy Guru Amar Das' expanded 22 bishops (later 7th Holy Guru's Kabul Manji & 9th Guru's Assam Manji, etc.) & 72 preachers (piredar). Holy Guru Ram Das' anathematized 55 masand. 5th Holy Guru's 4 types of sangat heads (pradhan). 6-10 Holy Gurus' 10 Udasi (4 dhune+6 bakhshishan=10). 9th Guru's Seva (Adan-Shahi) Panthi, & finally 10th Holy Guru's are 15 Nirmal Ministers (also are minister's of Nihangs). After 1708 C.E., evolved Sikh Sects are not Holy Guru ordained, but, of devotees.

in various erstwhile and independent Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and other national governmental revenue and municipal offices, as well as modern neo-Sikh Centers now recorded throughout the world.
Since Baisakhi (1699/1706-8), all conventional ministries very strictly continue to be bound by the Holy Canon's "mandates."6 In unbroken continuity, convention never interpreted any major-minor Holy Canon's passages or phrases out of "context."

Guru-Sikh Religious Faithful:
From the outset of 1699's Baisakhi, the foundational and unbroken continuity of the Guru-Sikh religious faithful consisted of two lay Sikhs forms: the civil (Sahijadhari) and the military (Singh) Sikhs. Both groups by tradition are ministered by their respective types of Holy Guru's ordained ecclesiastics, namely Civil Sikhs by the Civil Udasi Ministers, consisting of 10 ministry branches, and Civil & Military Sikhs by the tenth Holy Guru Gobind Singh's personally ordained Nirmal-Singh Ministry, consisting of 15 basic ministries which have evolved to over 1,000 branches. In fact, the British loyal national ex-Div. Judge M.A. Macauliffe, who was born in 1837, carried out "Divide & Rule Policy" to serve the British befittingly well.7 Due to unavoidable historical evidence and with very far-sighted, ulterior, and political motive, he clearly wrote:

"There are two great divisions of Sikhs, Sahijdhari and Singhs
In the Singhs are included the Nirmalas and Nihangs.
The Sahijdhari include the Udasi"6

Yet, Judge Macauliffe also continually showered great praise upon traditional scholarship to clearly express that without professional guidance, none truly could understand Sikh scriptures. Also he implied that lay Sikhs are out of touch with the technicalities of old religious canons and that Sikhs are hearing puzzling paradoxes. Those ignorant of the canons' languages (p.xv) are unacquainted with Indo-Semitic canons and later evolved denominations, sects, cults, etc. Without convention's guidance, no interpretation of Guru-Sikh major-minor scriptures was possible. Judge Macauliffe was very reluctant to admit more in writing, and in doing so, he made future Sikh generations reliant upon his work. Yet, he never wished to tell Sikhs that they ultimately will leave blind faith, acquaint themselves to reason/common-sense (aqal)8 logic (Tarak:nigamagam), and learn arts (kala) and science subjects technically, thereby circumventing the need to acquaint themselves with the outmoded South Asian languages to understand properly their Holy Canons in "spirit."

Furthermore, Macauliffe wrote that understanding sacred literature would require learning linguistics, old-new forms of grammar, syntax, and semantics. Medieval scholars wrote works customarily, in poetry, which is grammatically never exact yet facilitates easy memorization. Thus, Sikhs must learn classical prosody (1 to 5; Tuke:2 to 16-Pade), convert phrases into logical propositions, then interpret them in spirit. Minimally, a Sikh must learn rules of literal, figurative, and metaphysical semantics in order to understand old canonical/literary forms in spirit. In other words, five forms of expression include: 1) Riddles (Kut Sabd); 2) Internal question-answer riddles (Antar alapaka); 3) External hidden riddle answers (Bahar alapka); 4) Prose and poetry's connection with classical-country holy music (Rag); 5) Poetry's music rhythm-times (Ghar) relation to 14 forms of devotion and so on.

6. Sikh Religion Vol. I.p.lii para. 2(1909). NOTE: His use of the word, "division," is suspect in 1863-1909 amply, as if a schism already existed. Refer his MENTOR Bhai Kahn Singh's Mahan Kos:Shajadhari:$footnote (p.137 3rd Edt. 1974). Yet, it was created by him who made the British aware of this fact, then covertly created Singh Sabha Movement, that led to evolve a first Khalsa Divan, then Chief Khalsa Divan, Parliament's Sikh Marriage Act 1910, Gurdwara Reform movement, Parliament Gurdwara Act 1925, so much so, that division-separatism ultimately led to PARTITION OF THE INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT which was then ruled under British Governor General/Viceroy from Arabia's Aden to Burma's South: Singapore. Its pros and cons left for another article about South Asians even after half a century have learned little-nothing after experiencing such great suffering through irreligious divide-separatist polity!
7. "Divide" Hindu, Muslim & Sikh Religious followers & Rule through evolving/or stressing within them their denominational Separatist Policy.
8. Guru Granth: Guru Nanak I:p.1254:3.

Guru-Sikh Religious Theocratic Power
As a natural corollary, growth of Guru-Sikh religious theocratic powers needs emphasis.9 From time immemorial, religious and political leaders have applied "four" basic rules of polity:

Retain unity (Sam), to be conciliatory in times of discords;
Offer trade, remuneration (Dam), barter, or pay ransom "to keep peace;"
"Divide" separatist (Bhed) polity to hold power at all cost;10 and
Punish (Dand) individuals, in case of collective trouble, to establish righteousness (dharm yudh).11

Now, few Sikhs realize after three generations that Judge Macauliffe laid a foundation for the evolution of neo-Sikhism. He visualized the British Empire's might, global growth and its English language evolving globally. With foresight, he believed that westernized Sikhs will evolve. Hence, he created an entirely covert Christian Monotheist Church based on a neo-Sikh system to teach Guru-Sikh scriptures and neo-Sikh politics. Indeed, Sikhs now basically follow his translations of Holy Guru-Sikh canons and interpretation of Sikh history. Obviously, contemporary writers, inclusive of many, accept Judge Macauliffe as a pioneer, like Dr. McLeod, with western neo-Sikh scholars interpreting Holy Guru-Sikh canons on his work. Those who do so are totally ignorant of tradition, thereby keep on inaccurately interpreting crucial theological points.

Note: Evidently modern neo-Sikhs seem unaware that the English language of William Shakespear's (1564-1616) dramas was contemporaneous with the reign of King James I (1603-1625), who patronized the Holy Bible's Revised Version (1611). Shakespeare wrote in that time's spoken lingua franca. Evidently, 'that' old English language is not prevalent today, neither is the Queen's Royal Court language nor erstwhile British Empire's spoken/written colonial English. In fact, unquestionably, the old English language's idiom, syntax, and grammar are different and distinct from our contemporary English world over.

Holy Guru Nanak (1469-1539) belonged to the same era that witnessed adoption of the King James Bible. Surprisingly, modern Sikh scholars do not frequently consider linguistic traditions of the five-hundred-year old Holy Guru Sikh Canons. The reader should note that this lack of understanding of traditional text is only a recent trend. For instance, the two-hundred-year old classical works of Bhai Santokh Singh and the century old Nirmal Sant by Tara Singh Noratam's are written in Gurumukhi script,12 and these works represent old Canons Lingua Franca (Ruri Bani)!13 These works are just as distinct from all modern Gurumukhi script's Westernized Panjabi language as has evolved from the 1920s to the 1950s.

The fact is: Modern Panjabi language is a new language. Its idiom evolved due to Western printing, published literatures, and the dissemination of many translations, factors that heavily influenced Indian languages and changed all Indic regional languages presentation. Indeed, the Panjabi language was no exception. Our new Panjabi structure is not the same as five-hundred years back, neither is the Panjabi language half a century ago.

9. Of "four" objects: i.e., Ethics-Morals (Dharm), ii.Socio-Economics (Arth), iii.Socio-Political Desires (Kam) & iv.Physo-Spiritual individual-integral Liberation (Moks).
10. NOTE: This third "Divide, separate (Bhed)" is considered irreligious and negated by all theistic God fearing religious ethics: although, all must be aware of its effects.
11. Guru Granth:Guru NAnak I:pp.144:19-*3-; 580:1-; 1411:17-; 1412:-3-; Dasam Granth:K.Av:2489-92 & D.Ch.I:231; (Ramayan/Maha-Bharat) Bhagvad-Gita:II:*31, *37-38; VIII:7, XVIII:43, 60, 78,etc.
12. Before British influence, the term "Pandit" meant a "scholar" even among the Hindu priestly caste, although nromally by caste referred: Sharma, Mishr(a), etc. NOTE: Tara Singh was a 'Jat' of Panjab. He studied at Kasi; hence recognized a great scholar.
13. Guru Granth:pp.421:2; 427:1; 936:19; etc. Macauliffe The Sigh Religion Vol. trans: 'Colloquial.' Dr. W. H. McLeod to outsmart this pioneer, ignorant of Holy canon above quotes per se heard laity's uncoined: Sadhukai, Sat Bhasa non-canonical words:-Ref:Guru Nanak & The Sikh Religion p.8 & The Evolution of the Sikh Community Five Essays p. 69.

Guru-Sikh Religious Canons Theological Interpretation Rules
I. Obviously, modern neo-Sikhism scholars are largely unacquainted with the original canonical theological convention: 1) five-hundred-year old Holy Guru-Sikh canonical language; 2) theology; 3) East-West philosophy; and, 4) Old Indo-Semitic canonical technical Theo-Philosophy's hermeneutic methodologies necessary for communication. Hence, modern scholars often put square pegs in round holes. Claimant scholars must resolve all canon paradoxes whether they appear together within a passage or those that lie separately. Neo-Sikh scholars may wonder whether they ever considered these past-present factors of: language; idiom; syntax; prosody; or contexts. For example, in Holy Canons, many apparent contradictions (virodhabhas) are present , such as

1. Guru Nanak I: "The world is false, to whom can this be explained?"14
2. Guru Nanak V: "Seeing (world's) false contents: (many) believe them to be TRUE"15i Again: "Thine (world's) contents are true/real (existent (?))"15ii
How could these Holy canons' paradoxes be resolved?

II. Conventional scholars may interpret "Sache! Tere Khand"16 as "Thy worlds are true". Oh! Term "Sache" is not "world's" pronoun: but God's vocative tense (He Sache):

"Sache! Tere Khand, Sache! Brahmand. Sache! Tere Loa, Sache! Akar. jo mari jame su kachnikach"
"O Ture-One worlds art Thine (Tere Khand). O True-One! Universe (brahmand) art Thine. O True-One! Regions (Tere Loa) art Thine. O True-One!
Forms (akar) art Thine" Last Line: "That eschatologies (perishes) and evolves (born) are rawest of raw (false/not True)." Passages' contexts culminates in the last line in spirit and is the befitting meaning.

III. For nearly a century scholars translated the term "Karta" to only mean "Creator," following Macauliffe's Christian covert brainwashing view. Yet, in fact, Holy Gurus time and again assert: "God is Doer, Creator, Preserver, Eschatoler and even more all in one. All Holy canons state:

"Opat Karta, Paralo Karta" translation: "Doer is Creator; Doer is Eschatological."17

IV. Finally, neo-Sikh lay scholars and writers since three-quarters of a century tried very hard to show that Sikh Religious Holy Gurus at every step differed from old Indo-Semitic Atheist-Theist traditional doctrines in order to project other points of view. This is very good. But, until now, not one neo-Sikh writer or scholar of fundamental issues has come forward to properly and logically present any such acclaimed canonical doctrine. None have given any cross references within the context of any religious tradition. Nor have any presented correct logical assertions to interpret Holy canons and are out of touch with old linguistic understanding. Neo-Sikhs may blow their separatism's trumpets. But, is this at all enough without any old or new canonical proof? Bias and prejudices still remain, it will not do in our modern 21st century. Neo-Sikhs must develop a position, come forth and command (not demand) respect and authority universally! Truly, neo-Sikh scholars must answer all paradox problems within context, properly interpret all canon terms, proposition by denotation and connotation and appropriately translate texts giving English synonyms, etc., be open to seminar discussions, and encourage dialogue.

14. Ibid:p.147:15.
15. i:Ibid: pp.*707:19; (676:10) 815:8, etc.; & ii.pp.*746:17, etc.
16. Ibid: pp.*463 11.1-9, read with lines 13-14 "Ih jag Sachai-ki hai kothari Sache-ka vich vas."This world is True-One's house in which True-One Abides.": World is True-Ones's house. Never mean 'House is true' as normally neo-Sikhs write!

17. Ibid:pp.862:*5-, 17; 1135:11; 1137:18; 1186:5-, etc will strive to be most comprehensive directory of Historical Gurudwaras and Non Historical Gurudwaras around the world.

The etymology of the term 'gurdwara' is from the words 'Gur (ਗੁਰ)' (a reference to the Sikh Gurus) and 'Dwara (ਦੁਆਰਾ)' (gateway in Gurmukhi), together meaning 'the gateway through which the Guru could be reached'. Thereafter, all Sikh places of worship came to be known as gurdwaras. brings to you a unique and comprehensive approach to explore and experience the word of God. It has the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, Amrit Kirtan Gutka, Bhai Gurdaas Vaaran, Sri Dasam Granth Sahib and Kabit Bhai Gurdas . You can explore these scriptures page by page, by chapter index or search for a keyword. The Reference section includes Mahankosh, Guru Granth Kosh,and exegesis like Faridkot Teeka, Guru Granth Darpan and lot more.
Encyclopedias encapsulate accurate information in a given area of knowledge and have indispensable in an age which the volume and rapidity of social change are making inaccessible much that outside one's immediate domain of concentration.At the time when Sikhism is attracting world wide notice, an online reference work embracing all essential facets of this vibrant faithis a singular contribution to the world of knowledge.