Saturday, December 03, 2016
Gateway to Sikhism

WHENCE TO WHERE AND IN BETWEEN
birth,life, death & beyond: the Sikh perspective

NIRMAL SINGH *

THE ETERNAL QUESTION

The question as to  from where we have come, what are we doing here and where we are going has  intrigued the human mind through the ages. All faiths have tried to answer it in a manner which fits in with their spiritual, moral and ethical philosophy and how they viewed the Creator, the creation and man's relationship with both. While looking at the Sikh postulates in regard to these questions, we will also briefly look at a news item and  two recent articles published in the US with a view to relate our understanding to  contemporary human experience and social responses.

CREATOR AND THE CREATION

We live and are part of a world  which  is challenging, difficult, tough, hard, and at times,  painful and yet life affords a tremendous amount of accomplishment,  joy, happiness, and satisfaction. Much of what we see and experience is always changing. So are we ourselves.  We can understand the why and wherefore of certain incidents, occurences and experiences but  some happenings just cannot be explained. The best among us have marvelled at the  extraordinary  complexity  of  the workings  of  the universe and  have been awe struck even to comprehend the qualities and attributes of  the Creator of such a perfect,  stable, enduring and sustaining universe. 

The Creator is  dynamic doer, self- created and eternal. In the Sikh faith, we believe  God to be both transcendent [ nirgun ] and immanent [ sargun ]. Whenever it pleases God in His transcendental conscious state, He wills [ hukam ] and individuation  [ haumain] results [ 1 ].  Haumain, under the influence of three gunas[2], causes all kind of  creation. Thus Hukam is the source of all creation and God is immanent in all that He creates. Underlying all the diversity in creation is one element i.e. God Himself, the ultimate Truth and Reality - sachiara. All the creation is in His will and nothing abides outside of that -hukmai andar sab ko bahar hukam na koi [ M I  p. 1][3].

Our  life's journey  besides  being subject to God's will, is subject to the laws of karma or awa gawan as the Gurus have often called it. In the Sikh cosmology this law operates under the larger umbrella of God's will and God's grace - nadar.  The Guru's concept of the law, the way it works and what  may help obtain deliverance from the cycle of birth and death differ both in substance and detail  from the traditional Indian thought. The doctrine of karma and rebirth is not accepted by  the Semitic faiths but the basic tenet that everybody has to reap the consequences of their deeds under God's moral governance is accepted almost universally.

LAW OF KARMA

In a literal sense karma means action. The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism [ Panjabi University ] identifies three connotations of the word viz:

           - act, action or deed

           - fate, pre-destination stemming from one's deeds

           - Divine grace or clemency

Avtar Singh [4] avers that the interpretation of the word in Gurbani is dependant on its context and has identified four contextual meanings:

          - law of retribution or consequences of action

          - rituals, liturgy, and ceremony eg karam kand

          - grace or mercy eg karam hovai satgur milai

          - moral action eg karam dharam sagle khovai

 

The karmic law  basically  envisages that actions and experiences in one life influence future lives.  All actions have causes and therefore in turn they entail consequences. The action is not only a physical act; even a  thought, word or deed, known or unknown is a form of action. So is inaction because understandably it is the result of a deliberate choice made by the individual. All the organs of the body, both physical and mental[5], keep the human being busy in accumulating karma even when inactive. Any karma on its own is neither good nor bad. Karma is deemed virtuous or sinful depending on the motivation behind each action.

 All actions are inspired by desire.  Our mind ceaselessly wanders from one desire to another.  The urge to satisfy desires, trishna, is very difficult to subdue. In fact, every satisfied desire seems to give rise to ever more and more desires. The Guru says that - vade vade rajan aur bhuman ta ki trisan na boojhi [ M V p. 672 ] - the craving for evermore could  not even be satisfied by those who achieved  vast estates and kingdoms. As such our mind keeps us busily  engaged  in  accumulating karma, in thoughts, words  or deeds.

The choices that we make, the actions that we perform, and the thoughts that we harbor on a day to day, continuing, basis in our life are referred to as kriyamankarma. These are the karma for which we individually or collectively made the choices and as such these actions are within the possibility of our control if our decisions are well tempered.The traditional  Indian fatalism which negates the element of personal initiative  is not accepted in the Sikh faith. Some of the kriyaman karma we reap in this birth and some of these  get added to the accumulated, unfructified  karma from the previous  births which are called  the sanchit karma. Those karmas which have fructified are called  pralabdha. Our present existence is based on these. The human incarnation is the result of virtuous pralabdha karma. Our fate and destiny in this birth is largely determined by the pralabdha. When pralabdha finishes, an ordinary life ends.

In the Sikh scripture kirat applies to cumulative effect of actions performed during successive births, almost similar to  sanchit and pralabdha karma. The consequences of kirat must flow and cannot be effaced by anyone - Nanak paiye kirat kamawana koi na metan har [ M I p. 791]. Recompense for good or evil that we may have done, we must obtain ourselves - manda changa apna, aape hee kita pavna [ M I p. 470 ], nor blame any one because we have to bear the consequences of our own actions - dosh na deejay kahoo log, jo kamavan soi bhog [ M V p.888 ].

HUMANS IN THE SCHEME OF THINGS

Among all the Gods creation human being is a central figure and the other animal species subserve them. A human  comes into being when God infuses  light into the body - hey sarira meria Har tum main jot rakhi ta tu jag main aaia [ M III p.921 ]. This light , which we also call the soul,  emanates from the Eternal -eh sarir--- Sache ki wich joti[ M IV p.309 ]. Through life's ups and downs,the soul remains tranquil - atma adol na dolai [ M p.87]. Atma is  subtle and pure. It is subject to awa gawan.  The relationship between the soul [atma ] and the God [ Paramatma ] is likened to the sun and its rays - suraj kiran milli [ M V p .846 ].The soul, separated from its source longs to rejoin the Creator.

 The individual soul, under the influence of three gunas,  may be discretely identified from an infinite variety making it possible for its continuity through the cycles of birth and death per its karma. Haumain distinguishes the individual soul from God. The  different shades of  haumain  distinguish one soul from the other and  create our karma distinct from one another.

The human body is composed of the five gross elements [6 ] - panch tat mil eh tan kia[ M I p.1038 ].  God put a trace of everything when making the human body - mere karte ik banat banai, is dehi vich sabh vath pai [ M III p.1064 ] At the same time God gave this body, within which His light resides, the ability to act - eh sarir sabh dharam hai, jis andar sache ki vich joti[ M IV p.309 ] With the  immanent presence of God,  the body is like  a temple and must be kept pure and clean.The body needs nourishment for its sustenance.  Sooner or later the body desolates and the soul has to find another body, be it what it may in its continuous striving per its karma.

 Somewhere along the continuum of  body and soul comes the mind and is variously conceived as their joint product. and is on the one part gross and on the other divine. The gross part being that like the body, it is made of five elements -  eh mana panch tat te janmia [ M I  p. 415 ]. And  divine being that it is cast in the likeness of the Eternal light - mana tu jot sarup hain. [ M III p. 441 ] The mind comes into being when the body is inhabited by  the soul. The mind inspires conscious outward activity when it receives stimuli through the sense organs. It is a doer and it also  is discriminative and therefore critical of itself - ihu mana karma ihu mana dharma [ M I p. 415 ]. Tossed about by  doubt, desire, hope, despair, delusion, anxiety, fear and several other  powerful emotions,  mind's  counsel is more likely to be self serving and those who heed it  become -  manmukh - egocentric. One  can win over the  entire universe if one can control one's mind - man jite jag jeet[ M I  p. 6 ].

We come and go as He likes and  birth and death  happen under His  will  - jaman marna hukam hai bhane aavey jaaye[ M I p. 472 ].  The human birth is  an important milestone in the progress of a soul to achieve  union with the Supreme Reality - bhai parapat manukh dehuria, gobind milan ki eh teri baria [ M V p. 11 ].  The fortunate are  born as  human beings -  dulabh deh pai wadbhagi [ M V p  183 ]. One may have  spent several incarnations in other life forms before the opportunity of the human birth  -  kai janam bhae keet patanga [ M V p. 176 ]. The Guru says that God created eighty four lakh life forms, but bestowed high privileges on the human being and if the human being fails at this stage, then he will be back to the cycle of births and deaths -  lakh chorasi jon sabhai,manas ko prabh dei vadiai; is pauri te jo nar chuke, so aaey jae dukh painda[ M  V p. 1075 ].and exhorts us that -  jis dehi ko simrai dev, so dehi bhajh har ki sev[ Kabir p. 1160 ] -  the [human] body that the gods pray for [and you have got it], spend it [life] in the service of the Lord.

The law of birth is karma - karmi avay kapda [ M I p. 2 ].All humans  are  born in different circumstances determined by their karma, and not essentially  equal -  Ik upae mangte iknavada darbar [ M I p.16 ] -  some are born beggars and some hold vast courts. We all carry our baggage and depending on our karma, we are endowed with our inherent instincts as also our starting point and  some pre-destined rewards or suffering in our lives.

 

WHAT IS THE SEARCH

What are we looking for? The question may beget different answers from different people in different states of mind at different times. Broadly  however, we may find that human beings have been searching for an understanding of the process of life, its larger purpose and their individual role in the society. They crave that their life should be a morally, ethically  and spiritually  enhancing experience which brings them  closer to feel the underlying  unity of this abiding  creation, taste its real bliss  and partake in  joyous appreciation of  the mysteries and miracles of life. Those who believe in awa gawan, seek emancipation - mukti,  or freedom from the cycle of birth and death ; because surely the possibility of another life is a bondage.  Ultimately  all of us  search for a way to live which may help bring us closer to the Creator and yet is not in denial of life itself.

THE  GURU'S  WAY

For such a  living, the Gurbani says, one has to actively use one's physical assets to constructive effort while keeping the mind focused on the Lord - haath paon kar kam sabh, cheet niranjan naal[ Slok Kabir p. 1376 ]. Service, especially selfless service - nehkam- is highly commended for achieving union with God - seva kart hoey nehkami ,tis ko haut parapat swami[ M V p. 286/7 ]. In fact the suggestion is to curb the desire for any reward  -  kahu phal ki ichha nahin bachhe [ M V p. 274 ] The Guru's persuasion for the Sikhs is to ask of the Lord to give them the opportunity to serve the saintly, be in the company of the enlightened, and be immersed in remembrance of God's name - aisi maang Gobind te, tehl santan ki sang sadhu ka har naama jap param gate[ M V p. 1298 ]. One can be

 emancipated from consequences of one's actions if one completely surrenders oneself to the Guru - kaht Nanak eh jeeo karam badh hoi, bin satgur bhete mukat na hoi [ M III p. 1128 ]. Those who are immersed in holy Truth, they are freed of transmigration - Jo sach raate tin bohr na phera[ M  III p. 798 ].

 

Shabad or word is also the path to overcome the cycles of rebirth - avagaun mitai gur sabadi aape parkhai bakashi laia [ M I  p .940 ].  Reflective meditation on the Shabd is important to reach closer to God - Nanak sabd vichariai paia guni nidhan [ M I  p. 59 ]. To achieve salvation, one has to reflect, ponder and live Guru Shabd - satgur no sabko vekhda jeta jagat sansar, dithai mukat na hovaia jichar sabad na kare vichar [ M III p .594 ].

 

Love is important to achieve unity with God - jin prem kio tin he prabh paiyo [ Dasam Granth ]. One cannot even think of freedom from transmigration without love of the Lord [ and His creation ] in our hearts - man re kiyon chhute bin pyar [ M I p.60 ]. It is necessary for one's heart to awaken to love to be emancipated - jin antar preet lagi so mukta[ M III p. 122 ]. This feeling of love can be so strong as to subsume any desire for riches or even mukti - raj na chahun, mukat na chahun, man preet chran kamla re[ M  V p. 534  ].

 

Sikhs are persuaded to not run away from righteous action. Inaction in the face of coercion, tyranny, exploitation is not commended. Whilst one must accept the Bhanaor God's will,  one must resist and work for removal of injustice, discrimination and exploitation of the weak and the under privileged. In fact the Sikhs pray that God should grant them the courage and fortitude not to shy away from righteous action - deh shiva bar mohe, shubh karman te kabhoon na taroon[ Dasam Granth ].So even as we come into this world as per God's will and our destiny is significantly influenced by our past karma, it is our good fortune to be born as human beings. God has given us the ability to make our choices and we must endeavor to live our lives in a manner which is in harmony with God's purpose and participate actively. We are enjoined to live a householder's life; to work and earn for our family and give some to the needy and deserving. We should seek the company of the enlightened. We are told that austerities, self denial and renunciation do not help ; nor do rituals and superstition inspired actions to mollify gods. The important thing is to try  living in God's will, serving the community, engaging  in  altruistic activity, treating all as His children  and, in the  midst of and with other people, remembering God. We must never be short on honest

 endeavor and must retain our sense of - chardi kala- optimism. We should understand that no one can cannot fathom  His  ways  and we must keep faith.  He wants the good of all, is kind,  forgiving and full of love and if we live our lives in His path, we will be blessed with His grace.

The Sikh philosophy  believes that death is not the end of man .The ideal of perfection which ends the cycle of transmigration has to be attained living  in this world and till that stage is reached the individual keeps progressing or regressing on the path to merging with the Lord. There is no heaven or hell, it is all here , in this world. What is important is  the way you live your life, the choices you make. In fact any place where the righteous reside, where people join in harmony to serve God's purpose is heaven - baikunth nagar jahan sant wasa, prabh charan kamal ridh mahe niwasa[ M  V p. 742 ]

.Guru Nanak himself  asks : what is it that one can place before God which will provide the person a glimpse of His abode and what is it that one can  say which may invoke a loving response from Him and  then answers the question  himself  by  saying that meditating and reflecting on God in the ambrosial hours of the morning is such an action - pher ke agge rakhiai jis dissai darbar, monhaun ki bolan boliai jit sun dharai piyar, amrit vela sach nao vadiayi veechar[ M I p. 2 ].

 

 The Gurus  emphsise that even if one were to live for ages, earn a good name and praise from their fellow beings, the person may  not get any recognition in His court unless the person  is blessed with God's  grace  - je jug chare arja hor dosuni hoe, nava khandan vich jaaniai naal chale sab koe, changa nao rakhae ke jas kirat jag le, je tis nadar na aaveyi tan vaat na puchhe ke-[ M I p. 2 ]. In fact salvation can only be achieved through God's grace -  nadari mokha dwar [ M I p. 2 ].

LIFE RAISES QUESTIONS

This search is universal and abiding. People from all faiths ponder over these questions not just because they are interested in the cosmology of their faith[s] but  because life's experiences can be so compellingly intriguing that we all, ever so often, can but only wonder. I have just been looking at the cover page of the Sher- e Panjab weekly, issue of August 3, 2001 which came in today. The main story is titled - neki badle mot - death for being kind, with a large picture of a young New york resident, Rupinder Singh who in his goodness offered a lift in his car to some American way farers and one of  these persons murdered him and disappeared with his car. Rupinder was the son of S. Sulakhan Singh, treasurer of the Richmond Hill Gurdwara and had just graduated from St John's university. He and his family by all accounts were considered kind, virtuous and Guru ke sewak. It is a gruesome tragedy but can we  fathom the reason? Is it for us to know why God made it  happen to such people? Is it for us to conclude that kindness is bad? Is it for us to -------?

 I also want to share  the  story of  David & Nancy  Guthrie who live in Tennessee and who by all accounts are regarded as God fearing and upright people.[  Time dated July 16, 2001" When God Hides His Face by  David Van Biema ]. Guthries' friends  sometimes compare them to Job[ The Book of Job - The bible ] who was upright, blameless; yet was  put to severe hardships in his life. Job did not understand why, but after all his protests, trials and tribulations finally, Job, chastened says to God My ears had heard of You; but now my eyes have seen You and he surrenders his grievance.

 Guthries have a recessive gene which in extremely  rare cases may cause their child to be born with Zellweger Syndrome, a condition for which there is no cure or treatment. This happened & they lost the daughter who lived seven months. David got a vasectomy  but  again, rare as it is,  in 11/2 years Nancy got pregnant. The baby, a boy this time, was  due on 16th Jul 2001 and was, per the tests carried out, expected to suffer from the same gene defect. Why again, why inspite of vasectomy, why them? Van Biema talks about these  questions and  the responses of the people involved in his story.

 On learning at their daughter's  birth that her sickness had no cure or treatment, Guthries prayed God, our hearts are broken, but we have faith in You. The daughter lived through seven months of suffering. At her memorial service one guest characterised the occassion as a victory for Gutheries who had emerged with their faith intact. Many of their friends see them as singled out in a good way .David thinks it is a situation with lessons to learn--. Nancy says I think He has something significant He wants to do with it through me, if only just in my heart.

Gutheries have for seven years met with a group of believer friends every Sunday night who have been a great source of strength to them. The group  concluded, unlike the harsh Calvinism, that their plight was not evidence of  sin  and what God does maybe not about them  but about something that they are not able to comprehend. Nancy acceptingly  says I don't think God is obligated to relate His reasons to me.She thinks perhaps she can learn some obedience, as Jesus did. She also believes God's thoughts are perfect and that belief in miracles or avoiding the problem through an abortion would be indicative of tendency to seek comfort rather than live the moral challenge God seems to be willing. She writes in the darkest of days, we've experienced a supernatural strength and peace----- we often cannot see the hidden purpose of God. But we can determine to be faithful and keep walking toward Him in the darkness.

Another article by Lata Mani in India Tribune of March 10, 2001, makes the following interesting observations about the traditional Indian  concept of karma:

  - karma has mostly come to be associated with passivity, smugness and resignation - [ instead of being ] a                   guide to dharmic action

          - karma cannot be -- the burden of individuals alone- it interweaves closely with collective karma

          - the evaluation of karma as good or bad subscribes only to their worldly assessment - and belies - spiritual                 basis

          - [ it ] has failed to assist in providing the ground for ethical conduct

and goes on to suggest to deepen one's awareness of the environment in which one lives --- [be] fully present member of the human community --- commit to life and the earth --- [ to a future] built on harmonious inclusivity and interdependance.

Doesn't it resonate in our hearts that even as  we cannot always understand what and why of life's encounters, the   message by  the Gurus covers the panorama of life, its complex interdependancies, and lays out for us a moral and ethical path which will spiritually advance us. The path answers the  universal quest of  seekers and is as true today as in the Guru's times and before. The relevance of the Guru's path is there to see when we ponder over the experiences and observations in the contemporaneous examples we have seen. In the real life setting, the Guru's teachings are practicable now as they were then  and thus there is  hope for  us all to make ours into a better world if we live by them. Can we ask for more, for verily,  the Satguru  can , with His glance of Grace, show us the way to achieve mukti while living a life with our share of laughting, playing, dressing up and eating - Nanak satgur bhetiye poori hovai jugat, hasandeyan khelandian pawandeyan khawandeyan viche hovai mukt[ M V p.522 ]?

 

 

Farmington, Connecticut
 August 1, 2001

 

The author  lives in Connecticut, USA.  He is actively involved, with the Connecticut Commitee for Inter Religious Understanding and other groups promoting pluralistic  programs/ activities in Connecticut, in presenting  perspectives on the Sikh faith, culture and values. He has been associated with the Connecticut Sikh Association and is its former President.  Earlier he served with the Indian Army and  took early retirement when a Colonel to join the faculty  at Administrative Staff College of India, Bella Vista, Hyderabad where he was Chairman Operations Management and Dean [ Conlsultancy]. He has been a consultant to several large organisations in the public & private sectors and the United Nations. Has  numerous publications, reports, mimeos, working papers in management and technology ; variously  interviewed by the media , invited  speaker and resource person. In  the US since 1997,  he has been a management consultant and led, through turnaround and growth, a group of  healthcare companies as COO and CFO. Now retired, he resides at 65 Lido Road, CT 06085 and can be reached by email at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

NOTES & REFERENCES

[ 1 ] - For a different and more comprehensive treatment of the subject the readers may see The World and Maya in Sikh Cosmology by Wazir Singh in The Sikh Tradition: a Continuing Reality, Panjabi University, 1999, an anthology of selected papers published in the Journal of Religious Studies edited by  Bhatia & Spencer.

[ 2 ] - In  the ancient Indian thought, all  the creation  is  subject to three influences  or modes - guna. These are Rajas [ Rajo ], Tamas [ Tamo ] and Sattva [ Sato ]. Each of these modes represents a distinct influence in shaping human instincts and nature. The qualitative influences are:

          - Rajas: worldly passions and desires; greedy, lustful, alluring; source of all activity; produces pain

          - Tamas: jealous,envious, ill tempered, groping angrily in ignorance; resists activity, apathetic, indifferent

          - Sattva: self illuminating; producer of bliss, enlightenment; ascetic; potential consciousness, causing pleasure

[ 3 ] - The references in parenthesis are from Sri Guru Granth Sahib, unless otherwise indicated.

[ 4 ] - Avtar Singh: Guru Gobind Singh's Theory of Karma in The Sikh Tradition: a Continuing Reality, Bhatia &            Spencer [ed], Panjabi University, 1999.

[ 5 ] - In trditional Indian thought karam indris and gyan indris.

[ 6 ] - Traditionally believed to be wind, water, earth, fire and ether.

Other references:

Sher Singh - Philosophy of Sikhism, SGPC, 1993

Surinder Singh Kohli - Yoga of the Sikhs, Singh Bros, 1991

Bhagat Singh Hira - Semitic Religious Thought and Sikhism, National Book Shop, 1992

Jodh Singh - A Few Sikh Doctrines Reconsidered, National Book Shop, 1990

Taran Singh[ed] - Sikh Gurus and the Indian Spiritual Thought, Panjabi University, 1994

World Wide Web - a number of sites

WorldGurudwaras.com
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The etymology of the term 'gurdwara' is from the words 'Gur (ਗੁਰ)' (a reference to the Sikh Gurus) and 'Dwara (ਦੁਆਰਾ)' (gateway in Gurmukhi), together meaning 'the gateway through which the Guru could be reached'. Thereafter, all Sikh places of worship came to be known as gurdwaras.
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