Monday, December 11, 2017
Gateway to Sikhism

Kusum Lata Mittal Report

C H A P T E R - 2


D.C.P. : Shri S.K. SINGH: (From 28.6.83 to 18.8.86)
Addl. D.C.P. : Shri K. MAXWELL: (From 31.12.81 to 25.3.85)

2.1 North District of the Union Territory of Delhi is the largest, both in area and population. It covers part of old Delhi from Red Cross to Alipur and Narela and includes the most crowded places like the walled city, Chandni Chowk and Subzi Mandi. The area of Delhi University also falls within this District. The District is Sub-divided into the following five Sub-Divisions comprising of 15 Police Stations: -


  1. P.S. Kotwali.

  2. P.S. Lahori Gate.


  1. P.S. Subzi Mandi

  2. P.S. Roshanara

  3. P.S. Civil Lines


  1. P.S. Sadar Bazaar

  2. P.S. Bara Hindu Rao

  3. P.S. Kashmere Gate


  1. P.S. Ashok Vihar

  2. P.S. Sarai Rohilla

  3. P.S. Lawrence Road


  1. P.S. Kingsway Camp

  2. P.S. Adarsh Nagar

  3. P.S. Alipur

  4. P.S. Narela

2.2 The trouble in this District started in the evening of 31st October 1984, particularly in Subzi Mandi area and on Bahadur Garh Road under Police Station Bara Hindu Rao. While in some Police Stations the trouble was contained as soon as it began, in a few other Police Stations the situation remained bad for more than two days and stray incidents continued to occur right up to 4th November 1984.

2.3. One of the precautionary measures of Deputy Commissioner of Police (North) after the assassination of late Prime Minister was to get in touch with the Superintendent of Police, Sonepat on 31.10.84 ( at 11.25 hrs) to ward off the entry into Delhi of Sikhs traveling by road. Besides, the SHOs of Alipur and Narela also sealed the borders fairly effectively as a result of which miscreants from outside Delhi could not enter Delhi in large numbers. Some bad characters, however, did manage to enter North Delhi by trains on 1.11.84, particularly by Jhelum Express.

2.4. While sealing of the borders was a wise decision, changing of a number of SHOs on the night of 31.10.84 and 1.11.84 and replacing them with new persons was certainly not administratively desirable. Among the SHOs changed were Inspector Gurmail Singh (Subzi Mandi), Inspector Trilok Singh (Sarai Rohilla) (both Sikh officers). Inspector Ram Gopal, SHO P.S. Lawrence Road was also replaced by Inspector Asa Ram. In addition to these SHOs, even Shri Kewal Singh, ACP, Subzi Mandi (another Sikh Officer) was transferred in the morning of 1st November 1984. According to the stand taken by Delhi Administrator before Justice Misra Commission, these officers were transferred under orders of Addl. Commissioner of Police Shri H.C. Jatav through D.C.P. (North). The changes at this crucial stage do not appear to be an act of administrative wisdom. If the intention was to remove the Sikh officers, then SHOs at Alipur and Bara Hindu Rao were also Sikhs but they were not touched and both of them controlled their areas reasonably well. Besides this, the change of SHO of P.S. Lawrence Road, who was not a Sikh and was being replaced by another at this critical juncture, was definitely not administratively proper. The new SHO – Inspector Asa Ram has himself admitted that he was new to the Police Station and was not even well aware of the topography. He was therefore not effective.

2.5. The overall picture emerging from the affidavits filed before Justice Misra Commission, affidavits received by this Committee and the records of Delhi Police is that the Police Stations Subzi Mandi, Sarai Rohilla, Adarsh Nagar, Kingsway Camp and parts of Ashok Vihar and Kashmere Gate were badly affected. On the other hand, in the areas of Police Stations of Kotwali, Lahori Gate, Civil Lines, Narela, Bara Hindu Rao, police did reasonably well in controlling the riots. The other police stations can be stated to be neither good nor bad. Specific allegations against individual police personnel are comparatively few and will be discussed while dealing with the Police Station concerned.

2.6. The total number of deaths in this District, as per Ahuja Committee Report was about 151. In addition to this, there were fairly large number of incidents of arson and looting and the loss of property was quite substantial.

2.7. It is not proposed to discuss all the Police Stations in detail, but only the following Police Stations, which were badly affected: -

1. P.S. Ashok Vihar
2. P.S. Kingsway Camp
3. P.S. Adarsh Nagar
4. P.S. Subzi Mandi
5. P.S. Sarai Rohilla

2.8. The officers who have done exceptionally well and deserve to be commended are as follows: -

1. Shri Maxwell Periera, : Addl. D.C.P. (North)

2. Shri H.L. Kapoor, : ACP, Kotwali.

3. Inspector O.P. Tiwari, : SHO Kotwali

4. HC Satish Chander, No. 2/N, P.S. Kotwali.

These officers had done exceptionally good work especially in dealing with the situation outside Gurudwara Sis Ganj in P.S. Kotwali on the morning of 1st November 1984. A big crowd had collected and was indulging in arson and looting and was bent upon attacking Gurudwara Sisganj, which is one of the most sacred religious places of the Sikhs, in Delhi. To encounter the mob, Sikhs in fairly large numbers brandishing swords had come out of the Gurudwara and a confrontation was in the offing. With hardly any force with him, Shri Maxwell Periera stood between two warring groups and persuaded the Sikhs to go inside the Gurudwara. He warned the mob, trying to attack, to disperse and when he found that they were not willing to disperse and were indulging in arson and looting, he ordered H.C. Satish Chander to fire 3 rounds at the mob. As a result, one of the men in the mob dropped dead. Shri Pereira immediately announced a reward of Rs. 200/- to the Head Constable on the spot and within the hearing of the crowd. This resolute and firm stand of Shri Pereira had an instant impact and the mob dispersed. Thereafter, there was no serious incident during the entire period of riots. This incident is being g mentioned, as it proves beyond doubt that where the police officers showed the strength and the determination to check the riots, they could be really effective with very little force.

b) Besides the above, Inspector P.D. Duggal, SHO Lahori Gate Shri Khushwant Singh, SHO Bara Hindu Rao and Inspector U.C. Kataria, SHO Narela have done r4easonably well in keeping the situation under control within their jurisdiction.

(i) P.S. Lahori Gate: - On 31.10.84 when violence erupted, the SHO took effective action, fired 9 MM pistol rounds, arrested 14 persons on the spot, and registered a case of rioting and and decoity against them., Again, on 1st November, the ACP Lahori Gate and SHO resorted to firing at the mob looting shops and arrested as many as 30 people, 26 at one place and 4 at another and resisted 2 cases. Some of the culprits were arrested along with the looted property. Teargas was also quite effectively used against the rioters. As a result, not a single death was reported in this Police Station. There is no affidavit pertaining to this Police Station either in Misra Commission or before this Commission.

(ii) P.S. Bara Hindu Rao: - The first incidents of violence on the evening of 31.10.84 were dealt with effectively, where along with the PS staff, the ACP also reached and fired a number of teargas shells. As many as 14 persons, who refused to disperse even after use of teargas, were arrested on the spot and a case registered on the night of 31st October/1st November itself. On the next day, as many as 32 persons were arrested for looting and arson and a case registered for murder etc. as 2 dead bodies were also found. There was no attempt to minimize the offence. In another incident on 3.11.1984 when a huge mob was looting Azad Nagar Gurudwara, ACP reached their along with the army contingent. Firing was done by the ACP himself and one person was shot in the leg and many others injured. 6 persons were arrested on the spot along with the property looted from the Gurudwara. There are no affidavits pertaining to this Police Station, either before Justice Misra Commission or this Committee.

(iii) P.S. Narela: - Regarding this Police Station, there are no affidavits before this Committee or Justice Misra Commission. There were 6 deaths in the PS but the number would have been much more had the SHO not taken immediate preventive steps as ordered by the DCP The border with Haryana was sealed. About 100 trucks were parked with mostly Sikh drivers at the Sindhu Border petrol pump. The SHO persuaded the drivers to take the vehicles into Haryana and deployed guard at the petrol pump and this contained the trouble in this area.

(iv) In some other Police Stations though the situation was generally satisfactory, some bad incidents did take place. For example, the burning of a large number of taxis at the ISBT under P.S. Kashmere Gate. This incident has been described in the affidavit by Sri Smithu Kothari (2268). He has stated that he saw a mob of about 40 people, systematically setting fire to 20 odd taxies inside ISBT. These persons had 5 litre cans of inflammable material being used by them to set fire to the taxis. He contacted PS Civil Lines but they gave no help, as the place apparently was under a different Police Station. Sri Kothari went to ISBT again and on going around want to the Police Post at ISBT where he saw 6 Constables and an official watching the whole exercise as if it was a show. The policemen refused to take action, when asked by the deponent. The FIR registered at PS Kashmere Gate in respect of this incident (FIR No. 704 registered at 3.30 PM. On 1.11.84) narrates the events. SI Ram Singh, HC Kalloo Khan, Constable Udai Singh, Constable Yad Ram, Constable Ram Kishan were present at the departure block and went there on hearing noises. ASI Amar Nath and Constable Sunder Lal were already present there. Two Sikhs were also seriously injured who were sent to the hospital in the vehicle of Inspector Vigilance Shri Hari Bhushan who had reached there with staff.

2.9 In regard to this incident, the fact remains that the police staff at the ISBT PP took no action to prevent the burning of taxis as has been stated by Shri Smithu Kothari, an independent person who had seen the events first hand. Suitable disciplinary action needs to be taken against SI Ram Singh, who was on duty inside the ISBT. Besides this, major penalty proceedings are called for against ASI Amar Nath, who was in charge of the Police Post at ISBT, and in whose presence the taxis were burnt. The fact, that not a single person was arrested during the arson shows his indifference if not connivance. There is no point in recommending any action against the constables when the officer I/C of the PP himself was not inclined to take any steps to prevent the arson.

2.10. Regarding deployment of special Branch staff in the District, it has been found that the intelligence staff had been sending regular information regarding the various incidents of rioting and there was no attempt to cover up the events. Since the events were occurring at a very fast pace, it was apparently too much to expect any advance intelligence or forewarning by this staff. In the situation prevailing, it was enough that they were continuously passing on the information to the higher authorities as soon as any serious incident occurred at different places. There is, however, only one important event missing from their report, which pertains to the firing by the Railway Protection Force in Sarai Rohilla. However, no action against the intelligence staff attached to the District is called for, as senior officers were interested in blacking out this incident, as discussed later.

2.11. A detailed analysis of the 5 seriously affected Police Station follows:



2.12. Police Station Ashok Vihar covers a very wide area with mixed population of the well to do as Jhuggi-dwellers. It has an industrial area under it with a lot of labour population.


2.13. Out of the affidavits received before Misra Commission, the following 3 pertain to the incidents within the area of this Police Station. The first two have been examined in the Misra Commission.

1. SHRI MAHESH SHARMA S/o. SHRI DESRAJ SHARMA (2280): - He, a non-Sikh, has stated that a huge mob had collected in the morning at about 9.00 AM. On 1.11.84 carrying in their hands iron rods, oil cans, white powder packets, etc. They attacked house No. 617 which belonged to a Sikh and set it on fire. They also looted whatever they could lay their hands on. All the time, two policemen with revolvers are stated to be present. In his cross-examination, he has given the name of one of the two officers as Mange Ram. He has stated to have seen his name on the nameplate of this Police Officer’s uniform. According to him, the policemen appeared to be helping the mob rather then taking any action.

2. SHRI INDER SINGH S/o. SARDAR MOOL SINGH (2526):- He was a resident of House No.617, Nimri Colony which was attacked by the mob as mentioned in the earlier affidavit of Shri Mahesh Sharma. He has named a number of persons who were leading the mob and indulging in looting and arson. He has also mentioned the names of two officers Mange Ram and Raja Ram, both ASIs who were there along with the mob. Both were armed with revolvers but took no steps to stop the mob. According to him, the mob at first attacked the house of a Sikh neighbour Sardar Man Singh, resident of house No.619 in the Nimri Colony. His house is stated to have also been put on fire and burnt. According to him, ASI Mange Ram went into the house, looted the cash which was inside the safe and the deponent claims to have seen Mange Ram stuff the notes in his bag. He made a number of complaints against Mange Ram and the other police officer but no action has been taken. In his cross-examination, he has confirmed allegations made in the affidavit.

Detailed enquiries had been made by the investigating agency of Misra Commission in respect of this affidavit and a number of persons examined. The presence of ASI Mange Ram on the scene was established as indicated by Shri Mahesh Sharma and S. Inder Singh. ASI Raja Ram himself has accepted having been on duty along with the other ASI and 4 constables. During these enquiries, it has also come to light that one Ram Chand Nagoria, Vice President of the Youth Congress (I) of the East District along with a number of other non-local persons was allegedly leading the mob. This enquiry report also mentions that Ram Chand Nagoria had stated that ASI Raja Ram and ASI Mange Ram themselves indulged in the loot in the course of which the revolvers of the ASIs had apparently been snatched away by the members of the crowd when general loot was going on and the revolvers were restored to the ASI’s at the instance of Ram Chand Nagoria.

3. SHRI MADAN MOHAN S/o. SHRI JAGMOHAN NATH (2513): - He was the immediate neighbour of Sardar Inder Singh living in Quarter No.616, Nimri Colony. He has described the attack on the house of Sardar Inder Singh and has also mentioned two Police Men armed with revolvers present there along with the mob.


2.14 One affidavit of SARDAR MAN SINGHS/o. SARDAR RAM SINGH (211), Nimri Colony, has been received. It relates to the deponent’s house having been burnt as has also been stated in the affidavit of Sardar Inder Singh received in the Misra Commission, which has been discussed earlier. He has given similar details as Sardar Inder Singh and has named Mange Ram and Raja Ram ASIs who were there along with the mob. Both were stated to have been armed with revolvers.

According to the deponent, some inquiries were conducted against ASI Mange Ram by Deputy Commissioner of Police (North) who had recorded his statement but nothing further appears to have been done in the matter.


2.15. Incidents of violence in this Police Station started mainly on the morning of 1.11.84. There were attacks on Gurudwaras and the houses of Sikhs at various places and messages in this regard were being received on wireless almost continuously. The serious incidents, according to the police records, were the burning of Gurudwara Phase I Ashok Vihar, Deep Cinema, Shopping Complex in Wazirpur Industrial Area and Nimri Colony. The last serious incident in this Police Station occurred in the Industrial Area on 3.11.84.


2.16. About 10 persons (7 Sikhs and 3 non-Sikhs) were killed in this Police Station.


2.17. 1. FIR No. 502 – was registered on 1.11.84 at 1.35 PM. On a telephonic information from Mukhtiar Singh Pradhan from Wazirpur Industrial Area regarding an attack by a mob on a factory. The mob was stated to have been armed with lathis etc. and indulging in arson. Two Sikhs were also stated to have been beaten with lathis and fell to the ground. On receipt of this information, force was sent to the spot. The factory is stated to have been burnt and the mob started running away on seeing the police. Twelve of the miscreants were arrested on the spot along with lathis and iron rods.

2. FIR No. 503 – was registered on 1.11.84 at 4.20 PM. This FIR covers a number of incidents at various places. Infect, it names specific places where rioting was alleged to have taken place. According to the FIR, the mob was finally encircled near Wazirpur Gurudwara and 14 of the miscreants arrested along with lathis and other weapons.

3. FIR No. 505 – This case was registered on 3.11.84 at 1.20 PM on the report of SI Jagdish Prasad Soni and pertains to incidents of arson in the Industrial Area. The SHO is stated to have reached the spot and fired 4 rounds from his revolver. After lathi charge, the crowd is stated to have been controlled and miscreants were arrested on the spot along with lathis and iron rods. One dead body was also found and one injured person was sent to Hindu Rao Hospital.


2.18. There were widespread incidents in this Police Station but the redeeming feature was that a number of arrests were made on the spot where rioting was going on. While only 3 FIRs were registered, in each of them there are specifically named accused persons arrested along with lathis and other weapons etc. This indicates that at most of the places the police did try to take effective action.

2.19 However, there are specific allegations against two ASIs Mange Ram and Raja Ram. These allegations have come not only from the affected persons but also from independent witnesses who have deposed before the Misra Commission. The enquiries made by the investigating agency of the Misra Commission also proved that the two ASIs were present and were deliberately ineffective. Infect, some of the statements indicate that they participated in the loot themselves. The statement of Shri Ram Chand Nagoria, Vice President of the Youth Congress (I) of East District goes on to show that the two ASIs were so involved in the loot that they even lost their service revolvers, which were subsequently restored to them at the instance of Shri Nagoria. This also shows that Shri Ram Chand Nagoria had control over the mob as only in that case could he have the revolvers of ASIs Mange Ram and Raja Ram restored. The affidavit of Shri Man Singh received in this committee also corroborates what has already been given in evidence before Misra Commission. There appears to be no reason to doubt that these two ASIs were present with the mob when the attacks in the Nimri Colony had taken place. They were armed and took no action to control the riots. If anything, their presence and helping attitude had encouraged the miscreants who indulged in looting and arson. There are no allegations against any other police officer.


2.20. Departmental action for major penalty is called for against ASI Mange Ram and ASI Raja Ram as neither of them is considered fit for retention in the Police force.



2.21. Police Station Kings way Camp covers the area of new Police Lines and the headquarters of some battalions of Delhi Armed Police. Important localities in this Police Station are Model Town and Gujranwala Town.


2.22. Seven affidavits were received by the Misra Commission, out of which two persons were examined.

1. SHRI JAIMAL SINGH S/O ARJAN SINGH OF MODEL TOWN (172): He has described how on the morning of 1st November, 1984 some persons were seen moving around apparently to locate some houses according to a list in their possession. A little later a mob started attacking these houses. The policemen were stated to have been standing in a corner near the house of the deponent but they did not help. Instead some neighbours came to their help. He has been cross-examined and confirmed the correctness of his statement.

2. SHRI RAJINDER PAL SINGH S/O SHRI SARWAN SINGH (2674): He has stated that his house was located behind the Police Lines are alleged to have shouted slogans against the Sikhs. Stones were also thrown from the Police Lines in the night of 1.11.84. In his cross-examination he has stated that he tried to contact the Police Lines but no one responded and he was not allowed to take shelter there.

3. SHRI PIARA SINGH S/O SHRI JAGAT SINGH (2733): He has narrated how some persons known to him had led the mob to loot his house and factory. He also narrated everything to the SHO, Shri Durga Prasad. According to the deponent, the SHO along with one S.I. Sat Parkash was seen coming with a mob but instead of helping the deponent, the two police officers were instigating the mob. No action is stated to have been taken by the police on his complaint.

4. SHRI AJIT SINGH SAWHNEY S/O SHRI GURBACHAN SINGH SAWHNEY (131): He has described how in the afternoon of 1st November 1984 his house was attacked by a mob. He went up to the balcony of the first floor of his house and fired in the air. The mob ran away but a little later flying squad and the police party from the PS came to the site. According to the deponent, on seeing the police he went back to the door when a policeman standing near the flying squad took aim at him and fired and injured him in the back. ACP Shri D.L. Kashyap however took him to the hospital for treatment and 2-armed constables were posted by him at his house for the next 2 days. His gun and revolver taken by the police were later returned to him.

5. SHRI J.S. UPPAL S/O SHRI SARDAR SINGH UPPAL (2670): He was a resident of Gujranwala Town and according to him, on the morning of 1st November, a large number of Jhuggi-Jhopri dwellers gathered, raised slogans and burnt a number of houses. The deponent was saved on the intervention of some of the neighbours. He has stated that he approached the Police Station several times requesting the SHO and the ACP that a number of items of looted property could be seen in the Jhuggi’s even from outside, but no action was taken by the police to recover property.

6. SHRI PRITPAL SINGH S/O LATE CHARAN SINGH (37): - A resident of Model Town, he has stated that he know the names of the people who had instigated, organized and participated in the violence but did not want to give their names as he did not expect any action to be taken against them and also there was no guarantee of his security. He has mentioned general matters in his affidavit, which cast a poor reflection on the credibility of the police.

7. SHRI SATWANT SINGH S/O SHRI GURBACHAN SINGH (2562): - He has described how two DTC buses came to Gujranwala Town at about 11.30 AM and crowds alighted from the buses and indulged in arson and loot. They allegedly dragged out two Nihang Singhs (Sikhs), hit them with iron rods and burnt them after pouring some inflammable material. Cars and two wheeler scooters of the residents of Suri Niwas near the Gurudwara were burnt and their house set on fire. A report was lodged to this effect at Kingsway Camp Police Station. The deponent’s factory was also burnt at about 5.00 PM.


2.23. All the affidavits received before this Committee are general in nature and do not name anyone from the police who would have specifically failed in their duty. Instead, one of the deponents, Jathedar Prahlad Singh S/o Shri Mohinder Singh has praised the role of Shri. D.L. Kashyap, ACP, who is stated to have saved the lives and property of a number of Sikhs during the riots.


2.24. The incidents of looting and arson started in the P.S. in the morning of 1st November. The first incident was at the Taxi Stand of Rana Pratap Bagh where taxis and buses were set on fire. There were incidents of arson and looting in Model Town and the outer ring road. Mukherji Nagar Gurudwara was also set on fire. A number of incidents of similar nature were reported on wireless from different places in the Police Station. For instance, there is a message that 7 dead bodies were found between Chowk Mukarala and Wazirabad on the 4th with more still lying there. The incident of attack on the house of Shri Ajit Singh Sawhney narrated in affidavit No. 131 has also been mentioned in the report of the SHO giving the sequence of events. This report corroborates the statement of Shri Ajit Singh Sawhney and one gun with two empty cartridges and one revolver were taken into possession by the police in the presence and under the supervision and guidance of ACP Kingsway Camp. The deponent in this incident has not made any allegation against the ACP. A large number of incidents have occurred in this Police Station and one Gurudwara in Model Town and one on Lucknow Road were set on fire. However, there are not too many incidents on the 2nd and 3rd November, though stray rioting and arson continued till the 4th November.

2.25. The following cases were registered during this period:

FIR NO. 785 Was registered on 1.11.84 at 6.15. P.M. on a report of SHO Durga Prasad. It mentioned the incident of burning taxis at Rana Pratap Bagh Taxi Stand where he is stated to have dispersed a mob. It has been stated that large crowds were gathering around the Gurudwaras and indulging in arson. It also stated that at various places, dead bodies were found.

FIR NO. 786 Was registered on 2.11.84 lat 10.20 A.M. on a report from S.I. Jai Prakash. The SI had gone on telephonic information to a house in CC Colony. On reaching there, the SI found the rear portion of the house burnt. There is no mention of any loss of life in the FIR.

FIR NO. 787 was registered on 2.11.84 at 11.55 AM on the report of Sardar Bhagat Singh S/o Shri Tara Singh sent to the PS through SI Natarpal Singh. It has been stated in the FIR that at about 9.00 A.M., a crowd collected and attacked his house. The complainant’s father was seriously injured and his scooter etc. burnt. His father was removed to the hospital. No one has been named in the FIR.

FIR NO. 789 was registered on 4.11.84 at 6.30 A.M. on a written report sent by SI Shyam Singh. A timber store was stated to have been burnt and on information on telephone, the SI along with the staff had reached there. The fire was stated to have been extinguished by the Fire Brigade by the time SI reached. There was no loss of life.


2.26. According to the Delhi Ad ministration figures, there were only 9 deaths and as per the affidavits filed before Misra Commission the number of deaths would around 15. The total number of persons killed at the Police Station would be nearer the figure of 15.


2.27. There have been no arrests in this Police Station under any of the registered cases during the period of the riots. However, 14, 18 and 71 people were taken into custody under preventive sections on 2nd, 3rd and 4th November respectively.

2.28. Total numbers of rounds fired during the period are 6 on 1.11.84, 28 on 2.11.84, 14 on 3.11.84 and 3 on 4.11.84. There is no other Police action. Sufficient additional police force consisting of 2 SIs. 13 HCs. And 177 Constables were received at the P.S. on 1.11.84 followed by more force on 2nd and 3rd November. As such, this Police Station also cannot take the plea of non-availability of adequate force.


2.29. The events indicate that the incidents of rioting were not properly monitored and adequate efforts not made to control the situation in this Police Station. The fact remains that no arrests in any of the cases were made during the actual rioting and the rioters not dealt with effectively. Specific allegations have been made against the SHO in the affidavit of Shri Piara Singh. He has named SHO Durga Prasad and SI Sat Parkash as part of the mob. Allegations have also been made against the policemen of the Kingsway Camp Police Lines. The incidents narrated by Shri Rajinder Pal Singh in his affidavit, regarding stone throwing from the Police Lines, show that there was no discipline within the force and the police personnel were not under the control of the senior officers.


2.30. Suitable disciplinary action is recommended against Inspector Durga Prasad and SI Sat Prakash and the police authorities should look into the conduct and indiscipline on the part of the policemen in the Police Lines in Kingsway Camp and take deterrent acltion against them. will strive to be most comprehensive directory of Historical Gurudwaras and Non Historical Gurudwaras around the world.

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