|1552||Gur Gadhi Diwas, Sri Guru Amar Das Sahib.
==> GURU AMAR DAS (1479-1574), the seventy-three years old disciple who had distinguished himself for his humility and simplicity in Guru Angad's holy company was nominated Guru in 1552.
Born of orthodox Hindu parents in Baserke, a Punjab village, in Vaisakh sudhi 14th sunmat 1536 (May 5, 1479) to father TaejBhan and mother Sulakhani, Guru Amar Das married Srimatti Mansa Devi Ji on Magh 11th sunmat 1559. The marriage resulted in two daughters, Bibi Dani and Bhani, and two sons, Baba Mohan and Mohari.
Guru Amar Das was a great pilgrim. Once he happened to listen to a rapturous chanting of Guru Nanak's Japji by Bibi Amro, Guru Angad's daughter and his nephew's wife. He was so much enthralled by its supernal note that he repaired instantly to Guru Angad, the Second Master. He spent about 12 years, from 1540 to 1552 in selfless service and deep meditation, amidst an aura of holiness and splendor radiating from his beloved Guru. Amar Dass became a sikh of Guru Angad Patshah in sunmat 1597 and ascended to Guru Gadhi on Vaisakh 3rd sunmat 1609.
While expounding the gospel of Guru Nanak, the Third Master laid special stress on the service of the Guru and contemplation of the Lord's Name. He asserted that man could attain "Sahaj" (tranquility) through the path of the holy name. All doubts disappear and he attains Ananda (bliss) a stage achieved by the Bhakts through God-realization. He also held that these values could be acquired only through the Guru's grace.
During the 22 years of his ministry, Guru Amar Das took quite a few significant measures to consolidate the Sikh religion, as also to endear it to the masses of men. To widen the scope of the movement, he made Goindwal his missionary centre. Here he caused a big "bavalli" (a sort of well) dug and organized festivals on the occasion of "Deepavall" and "Baisakhi". A large number of Sikhs from far-flung places flocked to Goindwal. Indeed it became the first place of pilgrimage.
Besides, the Guru set up twenty-two manjis, or dioceses in different parts of the country where Sikhism had taken roots. Each Manji was placed under the charge of a pious Sikh with whose effort the Sikh Sangats (congregations) met daily and chanted the Guru's hymns.
The Third Master invested the institution of langar with a kind of inviolable sanctity. Thus, no one could, have darshan of the Guru without first partaking of food in the langar. This had the desired effect of proclaiming and establishing the essential equality of all mankind. In the Guru's Temple of Bread, the rich and the poor, the high-born and the untouchable, ate together as members of an integrated human family. The Guru also fought other rampant social evils like "Sati", drink and Purdah. With a view to marking out the Sikhs as a distinct people, Guru Amar Das prescribed a set of rites to be followed on occasions such as birth and death. The Guru also visited Hindu cities of pilgrimage and there, too, he propagated the gospel of Guru Nanak.
Guru Amar Das Patshah left for heavenly abode on Bhado Sudi 15 sunmat 1631 (Sept. 1, 1574 after serving 22 years, 5 months, and 23 days as the third Guru of GurSikhism.
-Ref. "Guru Granth Ratnavali," (pp. 142) by Dr. D.S. Mani, Sardar Bakhshish Singh, and Dr. Gurdit Singh
|1620||Guru Hargobind Ji had to marry Nanaki despite his refusal. This was an unfortunate upshot of the jubilation in Sikh community caused by Guru Sahib's release from seven years of incarceration. Within a few months two brides were pledged to him by their parents. Under the customs prevalent at that time, on Guru Hargobind's refusal, those girls would have remained unmarried throughout their life. So he had to marry Nanaki on March 28, 1620, and Mehrai also called Marwahi on July 10, 1620. The first incident occurred too close to his release. Taken aback at the second incident, he announced that no one should pledge his daughter to him in future.
==> Guru HAR GOBIND PATSHAH (1595-1644) was born on Hadh 21 sunmat 1652 (June 14, 1595) to father Sri Guru Arjan Dev Patshah and mother Matta Ganga Ji, in village Vadhali. He received his religious education from Baba Budha Ji. Guru Sahib married three time:
Guru Sahib had five sons (Baba Gurditta Ji, Suraj Mal, Aani Rai, Atal Rai, and Guru Teg Bahadhur Ji) and one daughter (Bhiro). On Jaeth 29 sunmat 1663 (May 25 1606), while ascended to Guru Gadhi, Guru Har Gobind Patshah changed the previous tradition of wearing "Saeli toppi" (cap) and replaced it with wearing "Kalgi". At the same time, he started the tradition of wearing two swords of "Miri Piri". Observing the prevalent conditions of the nation at that time, Guru Sahib started teaching self-protection skills along with the religious preaching.
When the Akbar's policy of assimilation changed to Jahagir's propaganda against the Sikhs, resulting in the martyrdom of Sri Guru Arjan Dev Patshah, Guru Har Gobind Patshah urged his followers to pick up weapons for their self-protection. He preached self-protection along with his religious message. Upon hearing this, Jahagir arrested and jailed Guru Sahib in Gawalior fort. However, instead of losing popularity, as expected by Jahagir, this action immensely increased the popularity and following of Guru Sahib. Many renowned muslims issued a call for Guru Sahib's release. As a result, Jahagir not only released Guru Sahib but actively sought to establish some level of friendship. However, when Shahjahan came to power in sunmat 1685, the government policy went strongly against the Sikhs. As a result, Guru Sahib fought the following four wars with the mughal forces:
Guru Sahib left this materialistic world for heavenly abode on Chaet 7 sunmat 1701 (March 3, 1644) after serving as the sixth Guru of GurSikhism for a total of 37 years, 10 months, and 7 days. Guru Sahib's entire journey through this planet amounted to 48 years, 8 months, and 15 days. Guru Har Rai Patshah ascended to Guru Gadhi after Guru Har Gobind.
|1965||SGPC resolves at its general meeting to establish Punjabi Suba.|