|####||Jotti Jot, Eighth Patshah, Guru Har Krishan Ji. |
==> Guru HAR KRISHAN Patshah (1656-1668), was born on monday, Sawan 8 sunmat 1713 (July 7, 1656) at Kiratpur, to father Sri Guru Har Rai Patshah and mother Matta Krishan Kaur. On Katak 8 sunmat 1718 (Oct. 7 1661), Guru Sahib ascended to Gur Gadhi. Based on the complaints of Baba Ram Rai, Guru Sahib were summoned to Aurangzeb's court in Delhi. While in Delhi, Guru Sahib suffered from small pox (Chaechak) and subsequently left for heavenly abode on Vaisak 3 sunmat 1721 (March 30, 1664). Two historical Gurudwaras marking Guru Sahib's visit to Delhi include Balla Sahib and Bangla Sahib.
Guru Har Krishan, served as the eighth Guru of GurSikhism for a total of 2 years, 5 months and 26 days. Guru Sahibs's entire journey through our planet totaled to 7 years, 8 months, and 26 days.
"Sri Har Krishan Dayia Jit Ditha Sab Dukh Jae" (Chandhi 3)
-Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 265)
|####||Gur Gadhi, Ninth Patshah, Guru Tegh Bahadhur Ji. |
==> GURU TEGH BAHADUR (1621-1675): RAG SORATH
In the galaxy of immortal martyrs who laid down their precious lives to keep ablaze the flame of faith and freedom, the name of the Ninth Master, Guru Tegh Bahadur stands out radiantly prominent. Doubtless, there have been prophets who sacrificed themselves at the altar of their own religion, but the uniqueness of the Ninth Master's martyrdom lies in the fact that he courted death in defending the religion of the persecuted Hindus who had sought his shelter when they were forced to choose between death and Islam. Guru Tegh Bahadur, the second martyr Guru, who was born at Amritsar in 1621, was the youngest son of Guru Hargobind Sahib, the Sixth Master (1595-1645). Guru Har Rai, the Seventh Master (1630-61), and Guru Hari Krishna, the Eight Master (1656-1964): however, preceded him as Gurus. He adorned the sacred throne of Guru Nanak from 1664 to 1675. His installation as Guru enraged Dhirmal and the masands, who were the most contentious claimants to the Guruship.
Guru Tegh Bahadur toured the Punjab, particularly the Malwa region, and Eastern India, to preach Sikhism. He also went to Assam with Raja Ram Singh and stayed with him for nearly two years. The Guru's family accompanied him on this trip, but, while proceeding to Assam, he left his familly at Patna. It was here that his only son Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708) was born. While leaving Assam for the Punjab, Guru Tegh Bahadur broke his journey at Patna for a short time and then returned to the Punjab. He purchased land from the Raja of Kahloor at Makhowal (Anandpur) and settled down there. From here he set out on extensive missionary tours and attracted amongst others, several Muslims to his faith.
The main theme of Guru Tegh Bahadur's sacred hymns is Nam Simran (concentration on the Divine Name) and Guru Bhakti (adoration of the Guru). One hundred and fifteen hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur are incorporated in the Adi Granth.
He has clearly set forth his own definition of Giani (or the enlightened one). In these compositions he has laid special stress on vairag or detachment for the realisation of the lofty ideals that distinguish the life of a BrahmGiani.
During Guru Tegh Bahadur's ministry, Emperor Aurangzeb intensified his fanatical plans for forcibly converting the Hindus to Islam. This move had serious repercussions in Kashmir, and, the learned Pandits of Kashmir came to Guru Tegh Bahadur to seek refuge. The Guru advised them to go and tell Aurangzeb that if he could persuade Guru Tegh Bahadur to embrace Islam, they would all willingly become Muslims. This proposal appealed to Aurangzeb, who had already hatched plans to bring to an end Guru Tegh Bahadur's missionary activities, so, he at once issued orders for his arrest.
The Guru, along with some of his companions was finally brought to Delhi and asked to convert to Islam or else face the penalty of death. The Master averred that he would sacrifice his life rather than give up his faith and his freedom of belief. Thus, under Aurangzeb's orders, he was beheaded at the place now called Sis Ganj in Delhi. His martyrdom was yet another challenge to the Sikh conscience. It was realized then that there could be no understanding between an insensate power imbrued with blood and a proud people wedded to a life of peace with honour. The sacrifice roused the devitalized Hindus from their supine somnolence and gave them a hint of the power that comes from self-respect and sacrifice. Guru Tegh Bahadur thus earned the enduring sobriquet title of Hind-di-Chadar or the Shield of India.
-Ref. "Guru Granth Ratnavali," (pp. 70) by Dr. D.S. Mani, Sardar Bakhshish Singh, and Dr. Gurdit Singh
|1746||Orders to shoot Sikhs at sight leading to the "Small Holocaust" in Sikh history. |
Diwan Lakhpat Rai, to avenge the death of his brother Jaspat Rai, issued orders to shoot the Sikhs at sight. This campaign culminated in the holocast of 1748, popularly known as the "Small Galughara" in Sikh history.
After the 1745, Sarbat Khalsa resolution, Sikhs attacked Lahore one evening and decamped with a large booty. Yahya Khan who had taken over as Governor after Zakarya Khan's dead in 1745, asked Diwan Lakhpar Rai to displace the Sikhs from the nearby swamp hounts. One of the units led by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia on the way to the hills clashed with his younger brother Jaspat Rai and chopped of his head. Lakhpat Rai now in rage vowed to erase the Sikhs from the pages of history.
==> SMALL HOLOCAUST - Diwan Lakhpat Rai, a katri of Kalanoar, was the Chief Minister to the Governor of Lahore, YayahKhan. When his troublemaker brother, Jaspat, was killed by Sikhs near Badoki Gusayia village, he unleased a campaign of terror against the Sikhs to avenge the death of his brother. Jaspat Rai was actually killed in a skirmish with a Sikh outfit. However, Lakhpat Rai issued orders to shoot the Sikhs at sight. For some period, Lakhpat Rai even assumed completed control of Lahore, under orders of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Lakhpat Rai attacked Sikhs at Kahnoowal jungles and ordered to set the whole jungle on fire. Baba Deep Singh was among the Sikhs who escaped and subsequently fought back at the Beaas River bank, and finally reaching Malwa. This incident culminated in what is common known as the "Chotta Ghalughara" (small genocide) in Sikh history.
Subsequently, MeerManu arrested Lakhpat Rai and handed him over to Diwan KodahMal, who in turn handed his to the Sikhs. Sikhs kept him in jail for six months and eventually killed him in sunmat 1805.
-Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 1056)
|1748||Mir Mannu was appointed Governor fo the Punjab that brought some of the darkest period in Sikh History. |
Mir Mannu was appointed governor of the Punjab who vishiously pursues pursecution of the Sikhs. His reign truned out be one of the darkest period in Sikh history.
|1796||Khalsa Dal restores the belongings of Udasi Sadhus that were snatached by the Vairaghis during Kumbh Mela. |
A dispute erupted among the Vairagi and Udasis attending the Kumbh Mela at Hardwar. During this dispute, the Vairagies snatched away the belongings of Udasi Sadhus. On hearing this, the Khalsa Dal intervened and sucessfully restored all the belongings of Udasi Sadhus.
==> KUMB MAELA: There an old mythical story of hinduism, that once the Gods (Dev) and Devils (Daent/Rakhash) got together to churn the oceans. It resulted in 14 rattans, Amrit being one among them. The mutual distribution of the rattans among themselves resulted in a contention over Amrit which by turn belonged to Thanantar. Thanantar gave the Amrit Kumb (clay pot containing the amrit) to Inder, who handed it over to Jayant with instructions to carry it to the heavens. This was unacceptable to the Devils, whose Guru Shukar gave instructions to snatch away the Amrit Kumb. This resulted in a 12 day war, during which attempts to snatch away Amrit Kumb resulted in accidental spilled of Amrit over four places (Hardwar, Prayag, Nasik, and Ujain). For this reason Kumb Maela is celebrated at all of the four places. Since God's day is equivalent to a year in human terms, the 12 day war represents 12 years. Hence Kumbpurab is celebrated after every 12 year cycle.
-Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 340)
==> VAIRAGI, also known as Bairagi, is a branch of Vashnav Dharam started by Ramanand (Kabir's Guru). A shabad of Ramanand is included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Bairagi, literally means devoid of matrialistic world. Their religious practices include:
==> UDASI, a branch of Sikh dharam started by Baba Sri Chand.
==> Baba SRI CHAND, the eldest son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, was born on Bhadoo Sidhi 9th sanmat 1551 to matta Sulakhni in Sultanpur. He lived in Barath village, near Dehra Nanak, Baba Sri Chand never married and later started the Udasi sect (one among the NanakPanthi sects). Though there several visible sects associated with NanakPanth today, the three main sects include, Udasi, Saehajdhari, and Sikhs (including Nihang, Nirmalae, and Kukae)
[ref. Mahan Kosh].
Baba Sri Chand passed away on 15th Assu samnat 1668 at the age of 118.
Baba Gurditta Ji became the first disciple of Baba Sri Chand, who sent many GurSikhs in Udasi attires to preach and propagate Satguru's message in this world. Later there were four saewaks; namely, Ballu Hasna, Almast, Phulshah, and Gonda. Four popular branches emerged from these saewaks that are represented by four Matths (centres of worship). Along with these four branches, there are the following six blessed branches for a total of ten Udasi sects:-
Udasi attire includes "manjithi Cholla" (long dress), "gal kali Saeli" (black neck scarf), "hath Tumbha", and "Uchi Toppi" (high cap). Initially, the udasi did not cut their hair or beard, though such practices are prevalent today. However, Guru Granth Sahib is the holy scripture of all Udasi sects
-Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 9-10)
-Ref. Mahan Kosh (VaedhiVans pp. 1109)
Baba Sarbjot Singh Ji Baedi from Una Sahib is a living member of Guru Nanak's family who organized the GURMAT SANGEET SAMAELAN together with Baba Sucha Singh of Gurudwara Gur Gayan Prakash.
|1921||Kishan Singh Gargaj leaves his position as Howaldar Major of the 35 Sikh platton and became the Secretary of Akali Dal. |
Kishan Singh Gargaj becomes the Secretary of Akali Dal. He was Hawaldar Major of the 35/2 Sikh Pallaton. He was deeply moved by the Gurdwara reform movement and the Jallianwala massacre. Being hot blooded, he had staretd preaching against the British among his fellow solidiers. He effectively used the local Gurdwara stage to raise awareness among the solidiers. He openely started preaching revolt among the solidiers and challenged the government. As a result, he was court marshalled and imprisoned for 28 days. Subsequently, he was given Howaldar Major's pension and released from active duty. Immediately upon leaving active service, Kishan Singh became secretary of Akali Dal.