|1635||Battle of Kartarpur
between Mughals and Sikhs led by Guru Hargobind Ji.
==> GURU HARGOBIND's BATTLE OF KARTARPUR: the immediate cause of this battle was the trouble arising from Painde Khan's desertion of Guru's service and his joining the imperialist army following a quarrel with the Sikhs oevr a hawk. Painde Khan was a Pathan mercenary in the service of the Guru who had fought with the Sikhs against the Royalists. Painde Khan and Kale Khan then commanded the royal expedition assisted by Qutab Khan the Faujdar of Jallandhar.
Baba Gurdita, the son of Guru Hargobind along with Bhai Bidhi Chand commanded the defensive action when the Sikhs were besieged in Kartarpur. Guru Sahib himself took part in this action. Painde Khan attacked the Guru with his sword but the Guru, shielding himself, paid him back in the same coin after accepting his challenge. The Guru is said to have wept to see him breathing his last. Baba Gurdita took the defensive when he was attacked in the hand fight by one Asman Khan, his playmate in childhood. The Baba, however, mourned the death of his classmate with the remarks that to kill him was not considered a measure of success, rather it was a disappointment to have been forced by circumstances to kill a friend. Generals Kutab Khan and Kale Khan, both were slain in hand to hand fighting with Guru Hargobind.-Ref. The Sikhs in Ferment, Battles of Sikh Gurus, by Gurbachan Singh Nayyar, 1992.
between Ranjit Singh and British Government.
An agreement was reached between the Maharaja Ranjit Singh and British Government in Amritsar. This represent the very first agreement among the Sikhs and the British government. As a result the Phulkia Riyasat was placed under the control of the British.
The British conquest of India was facilitated by preventing the native princes from forming alliances with, or obtaining help from, powers beyond the mountains and sea. This enabled the British to maintain their hold with an extraordinary small force compared to the population of the Colony. In the early days, when its forces were slender, British forces had been opposed by the volour of Sikhs, Jats of Bhartpur, Rajputs, Maharathas, and Mughals. England avoided a clash with them and instead they took on the feeble Bengalis and Madrasis. Partially due to the pressure of events set in motion by Napolean, the British signed this treaty.
-Ref. Narinder Singh, Canadian Sikhs - History, Religion, and Culture of Sikhs in North America, Canadian Sikhs' Studies Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, 1994.
|1923||Akalis arrested in connection with the Guru Ka Bagh Morcha are released.|
|1923||Second proclamation for the apprehension of the Babbars is issued.|
Sri Darbar Sahib.
Two cow heads were placed outside two Hindu temples of Amritsar by persons unknown. The police held the Dal Khalsa responsible. When the news reached the Hindus, a very large crowd rushed towards the most sacred Sikh shrine, Darbar Sahib. When the Hindus reached the Sikh shrine, they started pelting it with stones. A very large number of window panes were broken. Some Sikhs were also seriously injured. The Indian Government immediately announced rewards of Rs. 125,000 for effecting the arrest of four Sikhs. It is interesting to note that the Indian Government later withdrew the case against one of them. The rest were not at all responsible for the action.
-Ref. THE SIKHS' STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective By Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon. Edited By: A.T. Kerr Page 110-119.