|1479||PRAKASH UTSAV, Patshahi Third, Guru Amardas Ji. |
The Third Patshah, Guru Amardas Ji, came to this planet. He was born in Baserke, district Amritsar, 13 kilometers from the city of Amritsar, in the house of Baba Tej Bahan and Matta Lakho. He was ten years younger than Guru Nanak. Today is the actual date of prakash, though Guru Khalsa Panth observes it on a different date (See description below for details on Guru Amar Das Ji).
==> GURU AMAR DAS (1479-1574), the seventy-three years old disciple who had distinguished himself for his humility and simplicity in Guru Angad's holy company was nominated Guru in 1552.
Born of orthodox Hindu parents in Baserke, a Punjab village, in Vaisakh sudhi 14th sunmat 1536 (May 5, 1479) to father TaejBhan and mother Sulakhani, Guru Amar Das married Srimatti Mansa Devi Ji on Magh 11th sunmat 1559. The marriage resulted in two daughters, Bibi Dani and Bhani, and two sons, Baba Mohan and Mohari.
Guru Amar Das was a great pilgrim. Once he happened to listen to a rapturous chanting of Guru Nanak's Japji by Bibi Amro, Guru Angad's daughter and his nephew's wife. He was so much enthralled by its supernal note that he repaired instantly to Guru Angad, the Second Master. He spent about 12 years, from 1540 to 1552 in selfless service and deep meditation, amidst an aura of holiness and splendor radiating from his beloved Guru. Amar Dass became a sikh of Guru Angad Patshah in sunmat 1597 and ascended to Guru Gadhi on Vaisakh 3rd sunmat 1609.
While expounding the gospel of Guru Nanak, the Third Master laid special stress on the service of the Guru and contemplation of the Lord's Name. He asserted that man could attain Sahaj (tranquility) through the path of the holy name. All doubts disappear and he attains Ananda (bliss) a stage achieved by the Bhakts through God-realization. He also held that these values could be acquired only through the Guru's grace.
During the 22 years of his ministry, Guru Amar Das took quite a few significant measures to consolidate the Sikh religion, as also to endear it to the masses of men. To widen the scope of the movement, he made Goindwal his missionary centre. Here he caused a big bavalli (a sort of well) dug and organized festivals on the occasion of Deepavall and Baisakhi. A large number of Sikhs from far-flung places flocked to Goindwal. Indeed it became the first place of pilgrimage.
Besides, the Guru set up twenty-two manjis, or dioceses in different parts of the country where Sikhism had taken roots. Each Manji was placed under the charge of a pious Sikh with whose effort the Sikh Sangats (congregations) met daily and chanted the Guru's hymns.
The Third Master invested the institution of langar with a kind of inviolable sanctity. Thus, no one could, have darshan of the Guru without first partaking of food in the langar. This had the desired effect of proclaiming and establishing the essential equality of all mankind. In the Guru's Temple of Bread, the rich and the poor, the high-born and the untouchable, ate together as members of an integrated human family. The Guru also fought other rampant social evils like Sati, drink and Purdah. With a view to marking out the Sikhs as a distinct people, Guru Amar Das prescribed a set of rites to be followed on occasions such as birth and death. The Guru also visited Hindu cities of pilgrimage and there, too, he propagated the gospel of Guru Nanak.
Guru Amar Das Patshah left for heavenly abode on Bhado Sudi 15 sunmat 1631 (Sept. 1, 1574 after serving 22 years, 5 months, and 23 days as teh third Guru of GurSikhism.
-Ref. Guru Granth Ratnavali, (pp. 142) by Dr. D.S. Mani, Sardar Bakhshish Singh, and Dr. Gurdit Singh
|1686||Janam Utsav of Sahibjada Baba Ajit Singh Ji, the eldest son of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, was born to Mata Sundari at Paonta Sahib on Magh 23 sunmat 1743. He fought valiantly and accepted martyrdom in the battle field at Chamkaur on Poh 8th sunmat 1761 (Dec. 22, 1704). |
-Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 48)
|1946||General Mohan Singh INA liberated from Delhi Jail. |
==> General MOHAN SINGH, founder of INA (Indian National Army), was born in 1909 at village Ugoki, district Sialkot. His father, an agriculturist of modest means, had breathed his last before his birth and his mother died when he was just five. He was brought up by his maternal uncle. He received education at Khalsa High School, Sialkot, up to Matriculation and then joined army. He competed for King's Commission and was selected. He was promoted to Captain's position in 1940.
At that time the Second World War was at full swing. In 1941 he went to Malaya to fight back the Japanese who were posing a serious threat to the British Empire. However, he was not happy with treatment his fellow Indian soldiers received from the British officers. When he was fighting against the Japanese, he came in contact with them. He approached them to secure their support in raising an Indian National Army to oust Britishers from India. Within a week of his joining the Japanese, he raised an army of one thousand men and fought agianst the British in Malaya. By that time Singapore fell and he has about 10,000 Indian soldiers under his command.
Afer working with the Japanese for 13 months he discovered that they were not sincere in their friendship towards India. The Japanese knew that he could not be made a puppet in their hands and they threw him in the jail. By that time INA consisted of 17,000 armed and equiped soldiers, some 25,000 trained soldiers (who did not have arms) and about 200,000 volunteers.
When in 1945 after the fall of an atom bomb in Japan, the Japanese laid down their arms and Mohan Singh escaped from the jail went into hiding in the Island of Java. Later he surrendered to the British. he was brought to Delhi as a prisoner on November 23, 1945 and in the due course of time was released like other INA officers.
-Ref. Eminent Freedom Fighters of Punjab, edited by Fauja Singh, published by Punjabi University Patiala.
PLEASE NOTE:-: INA which is also known as Azad Hind Fauj, was not started by Subhash Chander Bose. It was started by General Mohan Singh. General Mohan Singh was alive when Eminent Freedom Fighters of Punjab was published in 1972.
He joined the Congress party after the independence and later became member of Raj Sabha (upper house of Indian parliament).