Tuesday, September 27, 2016
Gateway to Sikhism

LIONS IN THE PUNJAB: An Introduction to the Sikh Religion
By Andrea Grace Diem, Ph.D.

Lions in the Punjab



1. See Mark Juergensmeyer, "The Forgotten Tradition in World Religions" in Sikh Studies: Comparative Perspectives on a Changing Tradition (Berkeley: Graduate Theological Union, 1979).

2. See W.H. McLeod, The Evolution of the Sikh Religion (Oxford: Claredon Press, 1970).


1.See Karine Schomer's and W.H. McLeod's (editors) The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India (Berkeley and Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1987).

2. McLeod somewhat stands alone when he says that the Sufi influence was marginal. Others like Vaudeville, O'Flarety, Lawerance, and Barthwal argue that the Sants were very influenced by the Sufis, citing as evidence Dadu's Sufi guru, Kabir's trips to the pir Shaykh Taqqi, and the similar ideas such as waralwara (ineffable God), ishq (viraha; love) and dhikr (shabd).

3. See Charolette Vaudeville, Kabir (Oxford: Claredon Press, 1974).

4. See Charlotte Vaudeville's Kabir (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974).

5. See W.H. McLeod, Guru Nanak and the Sikh Religion (Oxford: Claredon Press, 1968).

6. his same debate centers around Kabir. Daniel Gold in The Lord as Guru (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987) argues that Kabir had a human guru, while McLeod contends that his guru was probably the inner voice of shabd.

7. See W.H. McLeod's The Evolution of the Sikh Religion (Oxford: Claredon Press, 1976).


1. In W.H. McLeod's Guru Nanak and the Sikh Religion (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976) he criticizes this three-fold account was way too simplistic.

2. See W.H. McLeod, The Evolution of the Sikh Religion (Oxford: Claredon Press, 1976).

3. See W.H. McLeod, The Evolution of the Sikh Religion (Oxford: Claredon Press, 1976).


1. For more information on the Akali Dal see Mohinder Singh, The Akali Struggle: A Retrospect (Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, n.d.).

2. See Chan, "Sikhs Abroad" in Sikh Studies: Comparative Perspectives on a Changing Tradition, edited by Mark Juergensmeyer and N. Gerald Barrier (Berkeley: Graduate Theological Union, 1979).


1. See W.H. McLeod, Who is a Sikh? (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989).

2. See Mark Juergensmeyer, "Patterns of Pluralism: Sikh Relations with Radhasoami," in Joseph T. Connel et al., editors, Sikh History and Religion in the Twentieth Century (Toronto: Centre for South Asian Studies, University of Toronto, 1988).


1. Yet, despite losses of both land and lives from the partition, Sikhs were able to flourish in independent India, raising Punjab's per capita income to the highest in the country, namely via agriculture.

2. See Mark Tully and Satish Jacob, Amritsar: Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (London: Rupa and Co., 1985).

3. See Rajiv A. Kapur, Sikh Separatism: The Politics of Faith (India: Vikas Publishing House, 1987).

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The etymology of the term 'gurdwara' is from the words 'Gur (ਗੁਰ)' (a reference to the Sikh Gurus) and 'Dwara (ਦੁਆਰਾ)' (gateway in Gurmukhi), together meaning 'the gateway through which the Guru could be reached'. Thereafter, all Sikh places of worship came to be known as gurdwaras.
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