Utsav, Fourth Patshah, Guru Ram Das Ji.
==> GURU RAM DAS (1534-1581). the Fourth Master, ascended
the holy gaddi (throne) of Guru Nanak in 1574 and continued
to adorn the exalted office till 1581. Though he was the son-in-law
of Guru Amar Das, being married to his daughter Bibi Bhani,
yet he revered the Third Master as a Guru with an unwavering
fervor. Inebriated with the nectar of the divine Nam, he spurned
delights, and @pent all his time in an ecstatic communion
with the Lord through moments of deep meditation.
Originally called Jetha Ji, Guru Ram Das was born in a Sodhi
family at Lahore in 1534. His parents died when he was just
a child. He was, therefore, brought up by his maternal grandparents.
He had an opportunity to visit Goindwal, the seat of the Third
Master, at a time when the bavali was being dug through voluntary
labor. He immersed himself in this labor of love with such
a rare verve and dedication that he won the Guru's appreciation
and recognition. The Third Master was so highly pleased with
the disciple that he gave his daughter Bibi Bhani to him in
marriage. Nevertheless, he served Guru Amar Das with as much
love and devotion as ever before. It was in 1574 that he was
invested with Guruship and named Guru Ram Das.
Guru Ram Das's contribution to Bani is considerable. His
compositions throb on born of love for fellowman and yearning
for God. They inculcate in the people the adoration of God
and the Guru. Rightly does the Master image an ideal man as
one who had drunk deep at the fount of Nam and whose eyes
are aglow with the love of the Lord. He sought a consummation
of the human personality through God-realization.
The Vars (ballads) of the Fourth Master, enshrined in the
Guru Granth Sahib, outnumber those of other contributors.
After Guru Nanak and Guru Amar Das, it was he who expanded
the range of the Ragas in the Adi Granth adding as many as
eleven to the existing system. Notable among the Fourth Master's
contribution to Sikhism is the establishment of a new Chak
called Guru Ka Chak on the land gifted by Emperor Akbar to
Bibi Bhani, the Guru's wife. Later, it grew into the city
of Amritsar. Here the Guru started the digging of two sarovars
(pools) which when completed during Guru Arjan's time, came
to be known as Santokhsar and Amritsar So great was the Guru's
magnetism that during his pontificate Amritsar emerged as
a famous place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.
With a view to transmitting the gospel of Sikhism as also
to meeting the expenditure incurred on the ever expanding
altruistic plans and programs, the Guru founded the institution
of masands. The offerings of the Sikhs were collected by the
masands who rendered these to the Guru.
Guru Ram Das also deputed learned missionaries to establish
contact with the Sikhs outside the Punjab. Guru Amar Das had
already set up 22 Manjis (dioceses). Accordingly, the Fourth
Master bade Bhai Hindal and Bhai Gurdas begin their missionary
work and preach Sikhism at Jandiala and Agra, respectively.
The Guru also shifted his head-quarters from Goindwal to Amritsar.
Besides, he got prepared handwritten Gutkas (booklets of holy
hymns). The Adi Granth contains 679 hymns by Guru Ram Das.
Guru Ram Das had three sons - Prithi Chand, Mahan Dev and
Arjan Dev. He considered the youngest son, Arjan Dev, the
ablest and saintliest and, therefore, installed him as Guru
-Ref. "Guru Granth Ratnavali," (pp. 58) by Dr.
D.S. Mani, Sardar Bakhshish Singh, and Dr. Gurdit Singh
Bahadhur disclosed his mission, through Makhan Shah, a trader
from Muzaffrabad, Kashmir. He announced thrice from the house
top, to the congregation gathered for Diwali - "Guru has
==> GURU TEGH BAHADUR (1621-1675): RAG SORATH
That man who in the midst of grief is free from grieving,
And free from fear, and free from the snare of delight,
Nor is covetous of gold that he knows to be dust,
Who is neither a backbiter nor a flatterer,
Nor has greed in his heart, nor vdnity, nor any worldly
Who remains at his centre unmoved by good and ill fortune,
Who indifferent to the world's praise and blame
And discards every wishful fantasy
Accepting his lot in the disinterested fashion,
Not worked upon by lust or by wrath,
In such a man God dwelleth.
The man on vjhom the Grace of the Guru alights
Understands the way of conduct:
His soul, 0 Nanak, is mingled with the Lord
As water mingles with water!
galaxy of immortal martyrs who laid down their precious lives
to keep ablaze the flame of faith and freedom, the name of
the Ninth Master, Guru Tegh Bahadur stands out radiantly prominent.
Doubtless, there have been prophets who sacrificed themselves
at the altar of their own religion, but the uniqueness of
the Ninth Master's martyrdom lies in the fact that he courted
death in defending the religion of the persecuted Hindus who
had sought his shelter when they were forced to choose between
death and Islam. Guru Tegh Bahadur, the second martyr Guru,
who was born at Amritsar in 1621, was the youngest son of
Guru Hargobind Sahib, the Sixth Master (1595-1645). Guru Har
Rai, the Seventh Master (1630-61), and Guru Hari Krishna,
the Eight Master (1656-1964): however, preceded him as Gurus.
He adorned the sacred throne of Guru Nanak from 1664 to 1675.
His installation as Guru enraged Dhirmal and the masands,
who were the most contentious claimants to the Guruship.
Bahadur toured the Punjab, particularly the Malwa region,
and Eastern India, to preach Sikhism. He also went to Assam
with Raja Ram Singh and stayed with him for nearly two years.
The Guru's family accompanied him on this trip, but, while
proceeding to Assam, he left his familly at Patna. It was
here that his only son Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708) was born.
While leaving Assam for the Punjab, Guru Tegh Bahadur broke
his journey at Patna for a short time and then returned to
the Punjab. He purchased land from the Raja of Kahloor at
Makhowal (Anandpur) and settled down there. From here he set
out on extensive missionary tours and attracted amongst others,
several Muslims to his faith.
theme of Guru Tegh Bahadur's sacred hymns is Nam Simran (concentration
on the Divine Name) and Guru Bhakti (adoration of the Guru).
One hundred and fifteen hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur are incorporated
in the Adi Granth.
clearly set forth his own definition of Giani (or the enlightened
one). In these compositions he has laid special stress on
vairag or detachment for the realisation of the lofty ideals
that distinguish the life of a BrahmGiani.
Guru Tegh Bahadur's ministry, Emperor Aurangzeb intensified
his fanatical plans for forcibly converting the Hindus to
Islam. This move had serious repercussions in Kashmir, and,
the learned Pandits of Kashmir came to Guru Tegh Bahadur to
seek refuge. The Guru advised them to go and tell Aurangzeb
that if he could persuade Guru Tegh Bahadur to embrace Islam,
they would all willingly become Muslims. This proposal appealed
to Aurangzeb, who had already hatched plans to bring to an
end Guru Tegh Bahadur's missionary activities, so, he at once
issued orders for his arrest.
along with some of his companions was finally brought to Delhi
and asked to convert to Islam or else face the penalty of
death. The Master averred that he would sacrifice his life
rather than give up his faith and his freedom of belief. Thus,
under Aurangzeb's orders, he was beheaded at the place now
called Sis Ganj in Delhi. His martyrdom was yet another challenge
to the Sikh conscience. It was realized then that there could
be no understanding between an insensate power imbrued with
blood and a proud people wedded to a life of peace with honour.
The sacrifice roused the devitalized Hindus from their supine
somnolence and gave them a hint of the power that comes from
self-respect and sacrifice. Guru Tegh Bahadur thus earned
the enduring sobriquet title of Hind-di-Chadar or the Shield
"Guru Granth Ratnavali," (pp. 70) by Dr. D.S. Mani,
Sardar Bakhshish Singh, and Dr. Gurdit Singh.
Patshahi Tenth, Guru Gobind Singh Ji, at Nanded (ACTUAL DAY).
Tenth Patshahi, Guru Gobind Singh Ji, left for heavenly abode
in Nanded, South India. This is the actual date of Joti Jot,
though it is observed on a different date by Guru Khalsa Panth.
His mortal remains were consigned to flames by Bhai Daya Singh.
Shortly before his demise, the Guru advised the Sikhs to henceforth
seek guidance from the Holy Granth. He didn't appoint any
successor. The abolition of the personal Guruship actually
took place in 1699 when the Guru established the Khalsa and
after administering 'Khanda Pahzzl' to his five disciples,
himself took Khanda Pahul from them in the same manner whereby
the Guru also became the disciple. The personal Guruship stood
formally abolished after the death of Guru Gobind Singh. Guru
Gobind Singh was a great scholar, a brave warrior, and a great
commander. He wrote many compositions which are named'Dasam
Granth'. He fought 20 battles in 30 years. He breathed a spirit
in his Khalsa disciples, that has been evident in exemplary
courage for the last about two centuries. Khushwaqt Rai in
his 'History of Sikhs' has stated that Guru Gobind Singh issued
a coin with the legend, "Deg Tegh Fated, Nasrut Baidarang,
Yaft uz Nanak Guru Gobind Singh". Macauliffe has stated
that the Guru spoke the above couplet while breathing his
last. Sayyad Mohd Latif has stated that Guru Gobind Singh
used a seal in Gurmukhi script with the above legend. It was
in possession of 'pujans'. However, no such coin nor the seal
imprint has come to notice so far and these accounts do not
appear to be correct.
==> GURU GOBIND SINGH JI (1666-1708), tenth Patshah of
the Sikh faith, was born on Saturday, Dec. 22, 1666 at Patna
Sahib to father Guru Tegh Bahadhur Patshah and Matta Gujri.
On, Nov. 11, 1675, he assumed Guruship at Anandpur Sahib.
"Rahao Gur Gobind" Salok Mahala 9
Since early childhood, Guru Sahib was keen on weapons and
their use. It is for this reason, that Guru Sahib became a
scholar on weapons and mastered their usage, at a very early
age. Guru Sahib continually emphasized scholarly works throughout
his life. As a results, cholars around the world traveled
long distances to participate and receive honors in his courts.
He was always surrounded by renowned scholars. One of Guru
Sahib's objective was to translate all scholarly works in
Gurmukhi and commissioned several such translations. His vision
of Sikh Kaum included a communion of scholars. In an attempt
to turn Anandpur Sahib as the center of knowledge, Guru Sahib
actively encouraged and sent Sikhs to study at various renowned
institutions in the world.
To uplift the suppressed people, Guru Sahib instituted the
tradition of Amrit during Vaisakhi diwan of sunmat 1756 at
KeshGadh Sahib. Further he established a communion of Amritdharis
(who received Amrit) and called it "Khalsa". Guru
Sahib, himself was the sixth member of the Khalsa order. Witnessing
the false practices and prevalent injustices, Guru Sahib propagated
the message of Guru Nanak so vigorously that the neighboring
hill rulers felt threatened. Without understanding either
his message or appreciating his objectives, these rulers suddenly
turned enemies and attacked on several occasions. Each time
Guru Sahib had to fight for his defense.
In sunmat 1761, the Turk forces sought Guru Sahib to leave
Anandpur Sahib under promises that were proven false through
subsequent events. Once Guru Sahib was out of Anandpur Sahib,
he was attacked and suffered heavy losses. The hard work of
52 poets, accumulated over the years, along with several commissioned
translations was burned by the enemies of knowledge. However,
Guru Sahib patiently but bravely faced the enemy and escaped
into the neighboring forest. Here with his influence, Guru
Sahib turned this ghost land into Saint land and the forest
into civilized Malwa. With his message of patience and valor,
Guru Sahib preached the importance of sacrifice and true knowledge.
He had four sons from Mata Jeeto and Sundari, namely, Baba
Ajit Singh, Baba Zujar Singh, Baba Zorawar Singh, and Baba
Fateh Singh Ji. All four sacrificed their lives to protect
and further the growth of the institutional plant sown by
After bestowing Guruship to Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Sahib
left this earth on Oct. 7, 1708, near the banks of Godawari
river in Nanded, Guru Gobind Singh bravely fulfilled the responsibilities
of Guruship and guided the Sikh Panth for 32 years, 10 months,
and 26 days. He spent a total of 41 years, 9 months, and 15
days during his visit to this earth.
-Ref. Mahan Kosh
Singh passed away in Amritsar.
Nation declared independence from India.
Against the backdrop of relentless, brutal oppression, the
Sikh Nation declared its independence from India, forming
the separate country of Khalistan under forcible occupation
by India. All elected representatives of the Sikhs and the
Panthic Committee called for an end to the Indian occupation
of Khalistan. The Council of Khalistan, a government pro tempore,
was established to lead the international struggle to free
of Khalistan recorded in US Congressional records.
US Congress made a historic recording for the freedom of
Khalistan in its' congressional records, when the honourable
Congressman Brigadier-General Blaz from Guam submitted that
the "freedom of Khalsitan" was the only proper solution
to the Sikh nation's future.