Muslim League Attack on Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab 1947
Compiled for the SGPC by S. GURBACHAN SINGH TALIB
WEST PUNJAB ABLAZE
Sheikhupura is the district next to Lahore on the Western side. Just three miles out of Lahore, after crossing the River Ravi, one enters the boundary of this district. This district contains Nankana Sahib, the birthplace of Sri Guru Nanak Dev, and the huge estate attached to this Gurdwara which before partition yielded a revenue of about twenty lakh rupees annually to the Sikh people. Most of the proprietors of land in this district were Sikhs who had fine lands and had made them rich and productive by lavishing on this land such hard labour as only the Sikh agriculturist appears to be capable of. Besides, the urban Hindu and Sikh population of this district had industrial enterprise and had set up business houses, factories and works. Sikhs and Hindus were, however, in a minority in this district, the population proportions being:-
Sheikhupura Hindus and Sikhs were perhaps, after Rawalpindi and Multan, the worst sufferers at the hands of the Pakistani fanaticism and cold-blooded murderous frenzy. The blow fell on them suddenly and swifly-leaving between 10,000 and 20,000 of them dead in two days. The conspiracy that was hatched in Sheikhupura between the Muslim Leaguers, the Civil Officers, Police and Military for the extermination of Hindus and Sikhs of this town and the district governed by it, is perhaps the worst on human record, showing calculated devilry on such a large scale.
No incidents had occurred in Sheikhupura of any considerable nature, in spite, of all that happened since March, 1947 in Rawalpindi and Multan, Lahore, Amritsar and Gujranwala. This continued up till the day the Award of the Boundary Commission was announced, that is, August 17. Till that day there had been speculations as to which side would the part of Sheikhupura in which Nankana Sahib was situated, would go. Also, some people speculated that the 'other factors' clause in the terms of reference of the Boundary Commission might mean for example, Sikh landed interests on the basis of which Sheikhupura or a part of it might be awarded to India. So, during the period of indecision the Muslim League trouble-makers of this district were quiet, and were in a way sitting on the fence.
As soon as the Award of the Boundary Commission was announced and they knew that Sheikhupura had been awarded to Pakistan, the Muslim Leaguers and their allies, the Pakistan Police and Military, feverishly began to perfect and execute their plans for the looting and murdering of Hindus and Sikhs. Attacks on the countryside began as early as the 18th August; and within a week Sikhs and Hindus everywhere in villages, as will be seen from the appendix of incidents at the end, were being driven out en masse. During this time the plan was also made by which Sheikhupura town and other towns in the district were also to be cleared of Hindus and Sikhs.
The conspiracy began on about the 10th of August, when a public meeting of Muslims was called in cattle-fair grounds, ostensibly for the purpose of saying prayers for rains, which had that year been rather scarce. At this meeting, which naturally no non-Muslim could attend, the plan for attack on Hindus and Sikhs was explained to the Muslims. Muslims were very reticent about this meeting to their Hindu and Sikh friends and acquaintances. After this meeting, Muslim E. A. C.'s and other officials ceased attending the official club of which they were members. They instead held secret meetings, along with big Police Officers and Karamat Ali, a minister in the West Punjab Government and a resident of Sheikhupura. A confidential list was prepared of all leading Hindus and Sikhs of Sheikhupura, which was accidentally revealed by the Christian stenographer of the Anglo-Indian Deputy Commissioner, Disney. This was the 'murder list'. Haq Nawaz, Superintendent of Police, transferred from Gurdaspur to Sargodha, incited Muslims while on the way to his new charge, to murder Hindus and Sikhs. The Deputy Commissioner was a willing tool in the hands of the Muslim League plotters, the police and officials, all of whom took their inspiration and guidance from the above-named Karamat Ali, at whose residence daily meetings of these elements were held.
The situation was tense and ominous. All issue of petrol to non-Muslims was stopped. Petrol was dumped for arson. After the 20th August military used to parade the town for four or five days. But there were no incidents. Without valid ground, curfew was imposed on the 24th August. This was the first time Sheikhupura experienced curfew. Here too the curfew operated as everywhere in Pakistan. Muslims were free to move about during curfew hours, to set fire to houses of non-Muslims and to commit murders. Non-Muslim representatives approached the D. C. with the request to lift curfew, as it was being abused. But he did not agree to this request.
Muslims were making brisk preparations for the rioting of the next few days. There was a good deal of coming and going of Muslims at the residence of Karamat Ali, Minister. On the 25th, Hindu and Sikh houses were burned in Gurdwara Bazar. A false alarm was raised of an attack on a Muslim mohalla by Sikhs. All this was done to incite Muslims to fall upon Sikhs. On the 25th also a vigorous attack was made on Ramgarha which had a Sikh population of 1,200. Sikhs were being chased. The Muslim mob was followed by the military. When Sikhs gave a fight the Muslim mob retreated. Then the military took the lead and took up positions against Hindu-Sikh areas at about 2 o'clock (day). By about 5 o'clock the Hindu-Sikh population of this area had been killed, and the houses were in flames. Muslim mobs now swelled and spread out to attack to different parts of the town. Street after street was surrounded by Muslim mobs, military and police. The looting, burning and murdering continued all over the town for more than 24 hours, and stopped only on the evening of the 26th. Some Hindus and Sikhs saved themselves by hiding; others ran out during the night. 3,000 Hindus and Sikhs were killed by the military in Atma Singh's factory alone. Altogether 15,000 Hindus and Sikhs were killed in this massacre. Pt. Nehru, at the time lie toured the West Punjab with Mr. Liaqat Ali Khan, estimated the number of those killed in Sheikhupura at 22,000. Women were molested. Hindus and Sikhs who resisted the molesters were shot dead on the spot. In the Namdhari Gurdwara two wells were filled with the bodies of Hindu and Sikh women who committed suicide to save themselves from dishonour. Two other wells were similarly filled. Swami Nand Singh, a member of the Peace Committee was shot dead by his former Muslim colleagues on this Committee. On the night of the 25th August, the D. C. was present in the Main Bazar when arson, murder and looting was going on. A Section 30 Magistrate, Ahmed Shafi asked Lt.-Col. Dr. Surat Singh to convey his boast to Sikh leaders that Muslims had done in two days what Sikhs might never be able to do to Muslims.
This is in brief the tragic story of Sheikhupura.
The countryside of Sheikhupura, like that of Lahore was combed for Sikhs and Hindus, who were turned out of their houses, and murdered in large numbers. Muslims fell upon Hindus and Sikhs all over the district with a brutality and thoroughness the extent of which it is difficult to imagine, and of which only a vague idea can be given in the brief accounts given below. It is not easy to estimate how many actually succeeded in reaching the river Ravi or crossing it successfully, on their way to India in the first few days after the establishment of Pakistan.
The village of Kot Pindi Das in Shahdara Tehsil was attacked on the 15th August and, was thoroughly burned and pillaged for two days. It appears those who attacked were busy in pocketing loot. So, Hindus and Sikhs managed to escape with their lives in a destitute state.
Bohar, Chak 8 and Chak 702 (all in the Tehsil of Nankana Sahib) were simultaneously attacked on the 21st August with the help of Muslim Military. The refugee train which carried Hindu and Sikh evacuees from these places was stopped near Shahdara, a railway station five miles West of Lahore, and they were stripped of all their possessions.
Nangal Bhuchar was attacked on the 21st August. Hindus and Sikhs were forced to save their lives by fleeing, leaving their entire property behind. While crossing Pattan Bhindian (on Ravi River) they were attacked. They put up a good tight, however, and routed their assailants.
Machhochak in Shahdara Tehsil was attacked on the 22nd. Muslims from 10 surrounding villages fell upon this single village. About 50 Hindus and Sikhs Were killed. The rest left in a destitute state.
Dhanoe was attacked by a Muslim mob, accompanied by Pakistan Military, on the 24th. Hindus and Sikhs fled to seek shelter in Babakwal, a neighbouring village. Their assailants pursued them there. Here a general slaughter ensued in which between 400 and 500 Hindus and Sikhs were killed. A number of women were abducted.
Sikham, situated in the jurisdiction of Muridke Police Station, was attacked on September 1. Here 100 Sikh males were killed and 50 were wounded. 22 women were abducted, while 50 were forcibly converted and married to Muslims.
At Dharanagar lying in the area served by Sharakpur Post Office, 90 Sikhs were killed on the 27th August. Of Chak No. 49, in Shahdara Tehsil which was attacked by 50 Pakistan Militarymen on the 25th August, the entire Sikh population was wiped out.
Aiya Kalan was attacked towards the end of August, also by Pakistan Military. Here the number of Sikhs killed was about 80. Another 30 were killed on the way while evacuating from this village.
Khori and Nangal Dunna Singh (in Gujranwala District) were attacked by beat of drum. When Hindus and Sikhs of these villages were evacuating and crossing Pattan Bhindian (on Ravi River) they were again attacked, and some women were abducted.
In Ratniwala about 30 Sikhs were killed, while another 100 were killed by the police near village Wadhai Chima when they were evacuating for safety to a refugee camp. .
Chak No. 12, also called Gobindpura, was attacked on the 27th August by a force of 2,000. 25 Hindus and Sikhs were killed here.
Hindus and Sikhs of Sadh Nau Abad were forced to quit their homes and were again attacked while crossing the Ravi River, when 40 were killed.
In Awan Labana, on the 25th a big attack was made by a Muslim mob, Muslim police and military. Here 200 Sikhs and Hindus were killed, 200 women and some children were abducted. Looting and burning occurred on an immense scale.
The village of Faridabad (in Nankana Sahib Tehsil) was attacked on the 26th. Only half of the Hindu-Sikh population of this place reached India. The rest were either killed or forcibly converted.
Chak No. 4 Risala, situated within the jurisdiction of War-burton Police Station was besieged for 3 days, from 26th to 28th August. An ultimatum was given to Hindus and Sikhs to embrace Islam or to be prepared to face the consequences. The attacking force had in it 30 men armed with rifles, who marched at the head of a big mob. The Sikhs of this place were many of them ex-military-men, and they put up a very stiff resistance. On the third day all Hindus and Sikhs were forced to quit in a destitute state.
At Shah Kot brutalities were committed. One Sikh's eyes were gouged out by the Muslim mob. 1,000 Hindus and Sikhs were forcibly converted. Hindus and Sikhs of Sacha Sauda were turned out, stripped of all their possessions.
One of the memorable and heroic battles given by Sikhs took place at Bhuler Chak 119, in the jurisdiction of Sangla Hill Police Station. This large village was attacked on the 30th August. This village is located close to the borders of other districts, notably Gujranwala and Sialkot. All through August Muslims of the neighbouring areas continued to make preparations for attacks on Sikhs, with the active complicity of Muslim officials. After the 15th August, Bhular was the centre where Hindus and Sikhs of a considerable radius around came together for shelter. On the 30th, Muslims sent an ultimatum to the Sikhs of this place to vacate Bhuler, which the Sikhs indignantly rejected. Then Muslim mobs and police attacked from all sides. On the 1st September about 25,000 Muslims had gathered for attack. This mob attack, however, failed to break the morale of the Sikhs. Then armed police and Baluch Military stepped in to help the Muslim mob. Finding that the fight was unequal, Sikhs decided to die fighting, and killed their own womenfolk to save them from dishonour. A fierce and desperate battle ensued after this. Sikhs set fire to their own homes and property. About 200 Sikhs met their death in this engagement. The rest evacuated, fighting.
Sangla Hill is a fairly large and flourishing town in Sheikhupura district. This place was attacked on the 27th August by the Muslim Military, and the attack continued for several days. Here the technique followed was the same as employed by Muslims in most other towns. Curfew was imposed, which confined Hindus and Sikhs to their houses while Muslims went about freely, setting fire with police help to Hindu and Sikh houses, killing and looting. Here operations were directed against Sikhs by Magistrate M. G. Cheema of Lahore notoriety. 300 Sikhs were killed and a large number were shaved forcibly. Stabbing went on with police looking on. Hindus were given a false assurance of safety and ordered on pain of death not to shelter Sikhs. Later, Hindus too were looted and killed. Huge looting went on for days in this prosperous town. Searches took place in a way which outraged the modesty of Hindu and Sikh women.
Other Sheikhupura villages looted and devastated on a large scale, in which men were killed and women abducted are, Kuthiala Virkan, Khanna Labana, Chak 32, Chak 33, Malian Shekhan, Khanpur Kalla, Hariala etc.
Kathiala Virkan, in the jurisdiction of Muridke Police station was attacked on the 19th, when Sikhs began to evacuate. The evacuees were attacked between the villages of Fatehpur and Bhatianwala by Muslims of 20 neighbouring villages. 200 Sikhs were killed, and 250 women were abducted. Out of the original jatha of 5,000 only 1,500 finally reached India, the- rest having been killed on the way in attacks at various points.
Sharakpur is a Municipal town and a Sub-Tehsil of District Sheikhupura. Here leading Muslims had promised safety to Hindus and Sikhs with oath on the Koran. On the 27th August, however, the day after the unprecedentedly large Sheikhupura Massacre, Muslims fell upon Hindus and Sikhs. Muslims armed with rifles and automatic weapons attacked Hindus and Sikhs. Only 71 out of a total Hindu-Sikh population of a thousand escaped being murdered. Women and children were not spared. Jewellery and property worth hundreds of lakhs was looted from Hindus and Sikhs.
This was another installment of the elimination of minorities from Pakistan.
Lyallpur constituted the richest spot the Sikhs possessed in the Punjab. It was purely a Sikh creation, economically speaking. Sikhs had converted by hard toil of generations a sandy waste which this area was, into the granary of the Punjab. The Lyallpur Sikhs were not only one of the most prosperous group among the Sikhs anywhere, but they were also very well-disciplined, independence-loving and had a highly developed social conscience. They had taken a leading part in the movements of education and reform which stirred the Sikh people in the twentieth century. They were a proud, assertive and militant kind of people, who would not easily take a beating from any one. It was of the Lyallpur Sikhs primarily and also of the Sheikhupura Sikhs that the official Pakistan publication said that they left the West Punjab 'defiantly.' Yes, the sturdy Sikhs of those areas left the West Punjab thoroughly defiantly, and not abjectly. It was they again, to turn out whom from West Punjab, Governor Mudie made up his mind firmly. In his letter to Governor-General Jinnah, quoted elsewhere, he said:
This letter needs being pondered over carefully to realize the deep-laid Pakistan conspiracy to turn out Sikhs from their hearths and homes in his way: I don't care how
In the town and district of Lyallpur as a whole there had been few incidents of any kind before August, 1947. That was because the Sikhs of Lyallpur were so sturdy, so well-organised and capable of giving to any assailant much more of beating than they got. So, despite their majority in the district, Muslims dared not attack the Sikhs. There had been a few stabbing incidents in Lyallpur, and curfew for a few days but that was all. While in the neighbouring districts of Multan, Sargodha and Jhang there had been trouble on a varyingly large scale, the prestige of the Lyallpur Sikhs kept the Muslims at a respectful distance. Later on it was the Pakistan Military and police which finally decided the Sikhs upon leaving. And then they left, but in the words of the Pakistanis, 'defiantly' offering stiff resistance in most places.
So little was the amount of disturbances in Lyallpur up till August and so great the confidence of the Sikhs in being able, despite all that had happened since March 5, 1947 to get on even in Pakistan, that they more or less made up their minds to becoming citizens of Pakistan when Pakistan came into being. One of the two Sikh members elected to go into the Pakistan Constituent Assembly was a resident of Lyallpur, Giani Kartar Singh. The other, Sardar Ujjal Singh, belonged to the neighbouring district of Sargodha.
But so determined was the policy of the Pakistan Government and of the Muslim League in ejecting all non-Muslims and especially Sikhs from Pakistan, that harassment and murder of Sikhs and Hindus began even in quiet Lyallpur, as soon as Pakistan came into being. A few days after the establishment of Pakistan two non-Muslims were stabbed to death in Lyallpur near the Clock Tower, a very central place in the town while a crowded peace-meeting was being addressed by the Deputy Commissioner there on the need for communal peace. This incident and a few others of the kind showed to Hindus and Sikhs which way the wind was blowing for them. By the end of August murder and arson by Muslims had become very common in Lyallpur, and Hindus and Sikhs moved into refugee camps, those at Khalsa College, at the Arya School, and other places. Evacuation from these camps began somewhat later.
The way in which the Pakistan administration functioned is illustrated by such instances as these: One Sikh's hand was cut off by Muslims with the kirpan snatched from the Sikh. The police put the Sikh under arrest and nothing was done against the Muslims. 12 Sikhs were stabbed during curfew hours, in spite of which being imposed, Muslims roamed about freely, attacking Hindus and Sikhs. One woman was snatched away from a Hindu by Muslim Janglis, while the two were going to the aerodrome to take plane to India.
In the rural areas the attacks began round about the beginning of September. By that time the whole of the West Punjab was in flames, so to speak. Hindus and Sikhs were being attacked everywhere and were largely on the move to India. Lyallpur Sikhs were the last to be attacked and it was the Pakistan Military alone which felt confident of handling them.
The village of Chak 37 is situated close to the Lahore-Shorkot railway line. On the 4th September a refugee train was stopped near this village and Muslim Military attacked it, killing 50 Sikhs. After this butchery, the train was again started.
Jaranwala, a prosperous commercial town, was attacked by a large Muslim mob on the 28th August. While the townfolk (Hindus and Sikhs) put up a good resistance at first, the mob fell upon a hospital where Sikhs who had fled from the Sheikhupura terror of August 25-26th had taken refuge. 57 of these helpless Sikhs were killed and 40 of their womenfolk were abducted.
Attack on Jaranwala continued for ten days or longer. A large number of Hindus and Sikhs, estimated at about 700 were killed in the various refugee camps, such as the Mandi, the school and Turianand Hospital. 700 women were abducted and the number of those wounded was in the vicinity of 1,000. This attack was planned after the joint visit of Pt. Nehru and Mr. Liaqat Ali Khan, so that the Indian Prime Minister could be shown a clean record in this part of Pakistan.
From Chak No. 143 in Samundari Tehsil which was attacked by a Muslim mob on the 4th and 5th September, not more than 3 Sikhs were known to have come to India out of its total Sikh population of 700. This fact has its own grim story to reveal.
Kamalia, a large town, was attacked near about August 15. Here Muslim officials becoming active early, got as many as 3,500 Hindus and Sikhs killed and a very large number, especially Hindus, were forcibly converted. Other details like looting etc. are better left to the imagination of the reader.
Balloki Head was the bottleneck at which Hindu-Sikh convoys coming from Montgomery, Lyallpur, Sargodha and Multan etc. had to cross over the River Sutlej into Indian territory. Here these convoys were quite often detained for days together and extensively searched. These 'searches' were really predatory attacks in which everything of value was snatched from Hindu 12 and Sikh refugees by Pakistan Military, police and Muslim goondas. From the huge Sikh convoy of 90,000 which reached Balloki Head on or about the 13th September, a group of 4,000 was forcibly detached and diverted towards Bhai Pheru. This group was attacked on the way and out of it hardly 250 survived.
In the beginning of September, Hindus and Sikhs of 8 or 9 villages around Chak 305 (in the jurisdiction of Police Station Chatiana) were forced to quit their homes under threat of shooting. Their arms were taken away from them, and they were kept thirsty for a whole day. Then they were ordered to march. Those in the rear were repeatedly attacked and killed and their womenfolk abducted. After much further ill-treatment they were pushed into a railway train. This train was stopped at mile 5 on the Shorkot Road line and Pakistan Military and police fell upon it. This happened on the 9th September. Out of the 5,000 Hindus and Sikhs in this train, only 6 (six) survived. So thorough was the slaughter of these Hindus and Sikhs.
Hindus and Sikhs while evacuating from Pakistan were subjected to repeated attack, killing and looting. From village after village have come stories confirming this. The Hindu and Sikh inhabitants of several villages collected in Chak 272, which however, was attacked and extensively looted on September 8. The survivors of this attack evacuated from their place of shelter and were again attacked near Salooni Jhal. Here a large number of Hindus and Sikhs were killed and great loot was taken by the invaders. The unhappy survivors' trials were not yet at an end, for they were once again robbed of their belongings at Balloki Head, in Pakistan, the point at which they had to cross over into India.
The Sikh and Hindu residents of Chak No. 310 and other neighbouring villages in Tehsil Toba Tek Singh had to undergo very gruesome experiences at the hands of Pakistan Military and Muslim National Guards. About the last week of August, Muslim Military began attacks on Sikh bustees. The Muslim Sub-Divisional Officer of this area lulled Sikhs into a false sense of security by repeated oaths on the Koran and promises that Sikhs would not be attacked. Finding conditions growing intolerable, on the 1st September 5,000 Sikhs left the area on foot. Still the S. D. O. promised on the Koran that he would make them entrain from Toba Tek Singh and arrange for their safe evacuation to India. Instead, however, of being taken to Toba Tek Singh, they were taken to Chak No. 95 where they were attacked by Muslim Military and Muslim National Guards. Several women were abducted here. Finally on the 7th September these people were put in a train for India at Toba Tek Singh. This train was attacked by a large Muslim mob and the Muslim National Guards. These attacks were repeated and between Toba Tek Singh and Dabbanwala Railway Stations more than 1,500 Sikhs were killed.
A convoy of Sikhs of Chak 204 and its neighbouring villages was looted by Muslim Police at Balloki Head, the place already mentioned as being the point of junction between India and Pakistan. A portion of this convoy was diverted by the Police to Bhai Pheru, where an attack was made and 220 of the convoy were killed, 250 wounded and 15 women were abducted. Other portions of this convoy were also repeatedly attacked and looted. Near Khudian, which is close to Chhanga Manga, Muslim villagers broke the bund of the canal to obstruct the passages of this convoy and to entrap and slaughter it. The Gurkha Military accompanying the convoy, however, showed praiseworthy firmness. It is said the Gurkha Jemadar was wading in water up till his neck, but made the Muslims to realize that it would go hard with them if they continued to play mischief by letting flow the water of the canal. The threat of reprisals on the part of Indian Military made the Muslims realise that their own safety lay in ending the mischief. So the broken bund was repaired by them and the convoy passed on.
In the Loco Workshops Shed at Lyallpur Railway Station on the 3rd September, 3 Sikhs were killed in an attack. Among those killed was a child.
At Tarakabad Railway crossing, Muslim Military shot dead 60 Sikhs, who were part of a Sikh convoy which was proceeding on its way to evacuate to India. This happened on the 3rd September.
The incidents narrated above are only a very few (so few indeed as to be not more than two percent of all that happened in Lyallpur district). More names of villages attacked and casualties suffered appear in the catalogue of attacks appended towards the end of this book.
The Lyallpur Sikhs, as has been pointed out above, were a resolute disciplined body of men and in these days they were fortunate in being served by a band of selfless and cool-headed leaders, who to shame the devil, decided to co-operate fully with the regulations of the Pakistan Government, which that Government never seriously put into effect. Some of these workers had to their credit the rescue of Muslim women and children trapped in East Punjab.
In some places Sikhs in desperation followed the scorched-earth policy, destroying their own belongings when it became clear that they would in any case be looted by their despoilers, Pakistani Muslims. No wonder the Pakistan pamphlet complained that Sikhs left West Punjab 'defiantly.'
During the months of September and October, 1947 the roads leading from West Punjab into India revealed one unending, melancholy procession, day after day, of Sikh men, women, children and cattle, all fatigued and hungry, as they trekked into India, some with their few salvaged belongings in carts and others on foot. These begrimed and harassed Sikhs were those driven out of Lyallpur by systematic and designed Pakistan terror.
Many died on the way, especially the young, the old and the sick. The roads were all full of stench at every few yards from dying cattle. It was to this state that Pakistan had reduced the best and most prosperous colonists which India has in recent times known.
The District of Gujranwala lies next to Sheikhupura west of Lahore. The Muslim population of this district was 70.45%, while the Hindu and Sikh population combined was 22.70%. As everywhere in the Punjab, Sikhs and Hindus were enlightened entrepreneurs, good businessmen and organisers, and the Sikhs were very good farmers and owners of rich, fertile land for which they contributed land-revenue many times their population strength.
Nizamabad in Gujranwala District is famous for its cutlery industry. Thousands of parcels of knives from this place have been despatched by the Muslim grinders to different places in the Punjab and outside to replenish the armouries of Muslim League and Muslim National Guards. Very many times the Police of Bombay, Central Provinces, the United Provinces and other provinces have intercepted these parcels in the railway yards, and thus prevented their reaching those who could have used them for murdering the followers of other religions. But while some of these parcels have been confiscated through police vigilance, many times the number so confiscated surely reached their destination.
Wazirabad, a railway junction joining the Lahore-Rawalpindi-Peshawar main line and the Jammu-Sialkot line has earned great notoriety for the attacks made on Hindu-Sikh refugee trains and for the large massacres which took place both in the town and at the station.
Gujranwala itself continued to be disturbed in June and July; and in August, like all other West Punjab towns, it rose to massacre and hound out its Hindu and Sikh population. A peace meeting had to be called in Gujranwala on the 11th July at which Muslim League leaders including Mian Iftikharuddin and the Khan of Mamdot made very glib speeches about the virtue of neighbourliness and communal harmony. But the Muslim audiences knew very well that all Muslim League leaders' peace appeals, from Mr. Jinnah downwards were meant only to do a formality, to fool the Western world and to lull Hindus and Sikhs into a false sense of security. Behind the scenes these very speech-makers were planning riots and organising and financing arson and murder.
In July stabbing attacks on Hindus and Sikhs occurred frequently. There were also some attacks on Hindu-Sikh areas and arson was attempted. But the Hindus and Sikhs of Gujranwala were a well organised and fearless people, and gave back to the Muslims better than they got. Especially was the Gurdwara attacked, from which Sikhs kept their assailants well at bay.
With the approach of August 15, however the aspect of things began to change. By the end of July when a Muslim Deputy Commissioner arrived to take over charge of the District, the Muslim determination to hound the Hindus and Sikhs out of the own was evident. Officials, police and Muslim League were working in close co-operation to this end. Hindus and Sikhs naturally sensed the imminent danger and tried to leave before loss of life occurred. The Hindu-Sikh exodus became a general flight, for which even enough transport was not available. On the 27th July stabbing of Hindus and Sikhs was going on frequently. In the curfew if the Hindus and Sikhs came out, they were arrested, while Muslims went about armed, freely doing whatever mischief they liked. Stabbing of Hindus and Sikhs went on with the police looking on. Hindus' and Sikhs' houses were set on fire; even when the culprits who did this were arrested, the police did not take cognizance of the offence. A secret order was issued by Mehar Ghulam Mohammed, Inspector of Police who went from Amritsar, to the Muslim policemen to kill all non-Muslim policemen. M