‘Maar’ and ‘Maya’
Dr. Harcharan Singh Sobti
While studying the concept of maya (illusion) contained in Guru Nanakbani (Moh.1), one is apt to think of the Pali Tipitik and its eight stories as also the significance of ‘Maar’ because ‘Maar’ and ‘Maya’ respectively are the opposites of each other in Buddhist and Gurbani traditions. The only difference is that Maar is a villain and Maya its opposite gender. (1) How do Maar and Maya stand in the way of people seeking the Truth? This is the problem before us at present.
In Pali Tipitik (2), Siddhartha Gautama as a hero and Maar as a villain come before us. The moment Siddhartha decides to renounce power and seek Truth, Maar began to pursue him. Maar did not leave Siddhartha alone even when he got enlightenment passing through the three phases of ‘seeking’ (Sambodhi, Samma and Sambudha).
According to Buddhist tradition, Siddhartha renounced the world in the 29th year of his life i.e. in 595 B.C. (Life span: 624-544 B.C.). He left Kapilvastu, his place of birth and when he proceeded towards Magadha, he had his first encounter with Maar on the way. In the fifth Nikaye of ‘Sutpitik’, in the ‘Khudak Nikaye’ of the fourteenth granth (book) ‘Buddha Vansha’, the eighth story, ‘Madhur – Athvilasiki’, there is an oblique reference to the meeting between Gautama and Maar. Making an offer to Gautama, Maar said:
Ma nikham mahavir, itai te satmai dinai.
Dibang tu dakkartanang, adha patu bhavisati.(3)
Mahavir (O Great Warrior), don’t go. Within seven days the divine form of ‘Chak-ratna’ would manifest before you provided you return home.
Gautama turned down this offer of Maar and continued his journey towards his destination. After entering the Magadha Janapada, he made a small spot in the forest ‘Uruvela’ very close to Senanigam near Gaya (Now Bodhgaya) as his place of penance. The Niranjna river (Now Phalgu Nadi) flowed by its side. It was here on the bank of Niranjna river when Buddha was absorbed in his mediation that he had a serious confrontation with Maar for the first time. In the Pali granthas, besides other books, its details are found in the fifth book of ‘Khudi nikaye’, in ‘Sutnipat’ and in the ‘Eighth story of Jataka’ in the ‘Nidan Katha’ part. Before going into any aspect of this confrontation, it is necessary to have a clear idea of Maar and its extent. Just see, what Gautama Buddha says about this. On being asked by Radha as to the span and extent of Maar, Buddha said, ‘The entire universe spread over five khandas comes under its sway’ (6). What is this universe of five khandas? The khandas are five in number, like roopa, vedna, sajhhan, vijhaan and sandhara. With the combination of these five, the human form comes into being. These five assume the form of ‘Utpadan-khand’ with the mechanization of ‘Maar’. Buddha’s own initial words – ‘Dhamm chakk pavtan sutt’ – were said consequent to ‘Dukh-baddh’ (killing of pain):
Sankhiten panchupadan khanda dukkha
When the five khandas get soiled by ‘Upadan’ i.e. trishna (desire), they become the cause of pain. It is not that only Buddha is aware of the field of action of Maar, Maar it itself is fully conscious of this aspect. In the ‘Kasakk sutt’ of ‘Sanyukta nikaye’, Maar claiming its complete hold on the five organs of man, and beginning the tale of man’s helplessness, said:
On your eye, O monk, only I exercise my control! Also on all material forms. Where can you go, O monk; you can’t escape my tentacles. (In the same way), your ears are under my control on the entire range of hearing. (Even your) tongue obeys me, that is to say all taste, and consciousness thereof is totally under my sway. (On your) mind too I rule absolutely. All the mental states and all mental consciousness are not free of my authority. (8).
It is not easy for every Tom, Dick and Harry to repudiate the above claim of Maar. Suffice it to say that in Buddhist definitive vocabulary, according to Puthujan, who had not yet set foot on the ‘Ariya path’ shown by the Buddha, “The entire activity and conduct are under the imperial authority of Maar. Man has yet to grapple with the enemy like ‘Maar’ and come out victorious. Therefore, it is very essential to have complete knowledge of the power of Maar.
After nearly six years of penance also when Gautama felt that nothing had been attained, he made a bed of grass under the peepal tree (modern Buddhist Tree), sat down in the ‘Adhistan’ posture which means ‘Come what may I will attain Sambodhi even at the cost of my life.’ Maar armed itself with a thousand weapons, sat on the back of Girimekha elephant, and led his legions. The soldiers too were armed with very dangerous weapons. Maar made use of thundering clouds, lightning, floods, darkness and fire as its weapons and tried to push away Gautama from his ‘Adhisthan’. All the gods, who were singing praises of Gautama, got badly terrified and went helter skelter on seeing the mighty onslaught of Maar. Bodhisat alone remained there. Bodhisat related later that the army of Maar had ten divisions of each type, the details of which are as under:
1. Desire 2. Duality 3. Hunger and thirst. 4. Yearning. 5. Perilous existence. 6. Cowardice. 7 Doubt. 8. Flattery and foolishness. 9. Ill-gotten fame, applause and dignity 10. Self praise.
Bodhisat tried to seek help of the ten ‘Parsees’ (Virtues) who had worked hard in their previous ten births. The clash of the ten ‘Parsees’ with the ten types of armies, presents the theoretical aspect of the battle between Bodhisat and Maar. The ten ‘Parsees’ with whose help Bodhisat confronted the forces of Maar are:
1. Donation. 2 Gentleness 3 Sacrifice 4. Conscience 5. Bravery 6. Patience 7. Truth 8. Determination 9 Amity 10. Indifference.
Going deeply into the symbolic meaning of the fight between the forces of Bodhisat and Maar, T.W. Rhys Davids has very rightly said:
‘Bodhisat’s old (hidden) base instincts reappeared with greater force. For many years in the past, he had been viewing everything as of no value and fathomless. But he had begun to feel that his belief had become shaky as the comforts of home, love and attachment, wealth and power were coming before his eyes in a tempting manner. Once he had almost lost his self-confidence. But by sunset his ‘Parsees’ began to overwhelm the enemy forces and he came out victorious in this crusade.’ (11).
Though Bodhisat became the ‘Buddha’ after the conquest, Maar did not give up his quest for victory. It was not one to accept defeat so easily. Maar and his companions staked the claim that the place occupied by the Bodhisat belonged to them. Bodhisat justified his existence and presented the earth as witness. The earth gave evidence in support of Bodhisat with its thunder. At least that part of the earth went out of the domain of Maar. This can be said to be proof of Bodhisat’s victory and Maar’s defeat. This event is known in the Buddhist tradition as ‘Bhoomi Saparsh Mudira’. Thereafter Maar got dispersed along with his supporters. All the gods, who had fled with fear on the arrival of the forces of Maar returned and stood before Bodhisat. This will give you an idea of the conduct of the gods!
Siddhartha Gautama being Bodhisat and having attained Sambodhi, had become Buddha. On the very night that Maar launched the attack, Gautama attained Sambodhi. During the first quarter of the night, Gautama became aware of the past lives, in the second quarter, he attained divine sight and in the third, he attained ‘Prateet mamutpad’ (complete faith). Lastly, in the small hours of the morning he attained Sambodhi.
Anek jati sansarang, sandhavins anibsang.
Gahkarang kavesanto, dukhan jati pun punai.
Gehkarag dithosi, pun gehu na kahasi.
Sabba le phasuka bhagga, gau kootang vsankitang.
Vsinkhargal chitang, davhanai khaya sajag. (12)
I have been wandering through many lives in quest of the builder of this body, but I could not find it.
That is why I had to take birth again and again and suffer the pain thereof.
But O builder of this body, the house of forbearance, now I have seen you. Now you won’t be able to rebuild the house.
The entire structure has fallen. All the beams have fallen, the roof has crumbled.
Desire has been destroyed and the mind has been freed of ambition.
Who is this Gahkarak i.e. builder of the house? Its answer can be found in the context of ‘cravings’. Maar goes on keeping the pouch of ‘cravings’ on the head of everybody. Because of craving, one wanders into numerous births because one’s cravings never come to an end. The need is to free the mind of the cravings by destroying them. A victory over Maar can only help in attaining this. Getting entangled in the cycles of births and deaths is to lengthen the age of the Maar. The knowledge of a multi-racial world dawned on Buddha after having a victory over Maar, and not before that.
Siddhartha got victorious and became Buddha, but was Maar ready to accept defeat? He was bent upon defeating Buddha by hook or by crook. He continued in a state of enmity with the Buddha. To tempt Buddha and to bring in his fall, Maar sent to him his three daughters who were great beauties (13) – Tawra, Aarti and Ragaan. The three girls did not spare any wiles. However, they could not succeed in their nefarious designs. But they did prove to be wiser than their father. They accepted their defeat.
As has been stated above, Maar was not the one to accept defeat. He continued his efforts. Buddha thought after attaining Sambodhi that the path found by him was a very difficult one and that the dust of cravings had blinded the eyes of the people. They won’t be able to understand this. Why should they be made to exert so much? Accordingly, Buddha decided not to do any preaching. Maar’s mischief had worked behind this.
Detailed account is given in ‘Maar Sanyukta’ of Sanyukt Nikaye of the doings of Maar. He spared no effort to see that Buddha should fall from his pedestal somehow or the other and give up ‘Budhatava’. He assumed the forms of an elephant and a serpent and tried to scare him. Has he really attained Sambodhi or it is just an illusion? In order to harass Buddha he put such thoughts in his mind. Sometimes it happened that during his discourse, Maar presented himself before Buddha in some form or the other and tried to create some disturbance. According to ‘Mahaparivniyan’ Mut 15 of Diya Nikaye, Buddha was still enjoying the bliss of Sambodhi under the Ajpal banyan tree in Uruvela forest when Maar came to him and prayed to him to give up the body. Buddha declared that he would not give up his body till Bodh-shasan (Buddhism) was not fully established.
Not only did Maar pursue Buddha throughout (16), he did not even spare nuns like Kissa, Gautami, Khema, and devotees like Dhania and his wife, as also Vakklichhann who had not yet attained Nirvana (salvation). One can understand Maar’s attempt to lead them astray. But the meaning of Maar harassing Buddha after his attaining Budhatava and the Araats after their attaining Nirvana is not understood. It is necessary here to understand the difference between the Buddha and the Araat. Besides many other things, the basic difference between the two is that both attain Nirvana. Buddha plays the role of showing the path to attain Nirvana. This role is not available to an Araat. To understand the meaning of Maar remaining after them to bring in their fall we have to pay attention to two Nibbans (aspects). These two Nibbans are, 1 – ‘Sa upadi shesh nibban’ and 2 – ‘Anupadi shesh nibban’. The central word is upadi. Upadi means the physical form which comes into existence by the combination of five elements. When after attaining Nirvana, one becomes free of upadan, the five elements, or the existence formed of five elements, remains. But because of the influence of upadi new seeds of ‘action’ are not produced. This is called ‘Sa upadi-shesh—nibaan’. ‘Anupadi-shesh-nibaan’ is that state when even upadi also does not exist. In the state of ‘Saupadi-shesh-nibban’, the upadi continues to be connected with the earth. This connection only can give way to Maar and on the basis of this way, Maar continues to dog Buddhas and Arhataas.
Ordinarily no one can be victorious against Maar. It is a very difficult task and can be accomplished by only a few Buddhas or Araatas. Regarding the needed awareness and ability to accomplish this difficult task, it has been said in the Dhampad:
Toon vai vadasi bhadang vai, /abantetath samagta.
Tavhaya moolang khabath, usir latho vabihavagamang.
Ma vai nalang sot ova, maro bhajjitn pun punang.
O monks assembled here, I say this for your good that as people dig out the weeds to find the fragrant root, the same way you should root out ‘cravings’ so that Maar does not suppress you as the swift current of river suppresses a reed.
Maar attacks like strong winds and sweeps away an unwary person like a reed. The only way to escape its onslaught is to become a resident of ‘Nibban purush’ which is a settlement wherein Maar dare not enter. Evidently entry into the ‘Nibban purush’ can be possible only after attaining ‘Nibban’. The state of ‘Nibban’ is attained only when the fire of desires is extinguished. In fact, the state of the fire of desires being extinguished has been given the name of ‘Nibban’. How would this fire be extinguished? Not by blowing into it. That is, not by doing penance. The only way to extinguish this fire is to see that the supply of its fuel should be stopped. And the fuel is desire. To extinguish desires, Buddha had suggested the path of ‘Ariyo aphingako mago’, that is, eight-sided dharma. That is why Buddha has not been called ‘Margdata’ (giver of salvation) but has been applauded as ‘Marg Bhikhoo’, one who shows the way. (18).
Maar stops one to enter ‘Nibban purush’ by laying the trap of desires. Or it can be said that Maar stops man from attaining the ‘Nirban pada’ and taking shelter in Truth.
Maya is a villain in Nanakbani, no doubt, but not as a character; it is a concept. It is a concept which can be put to the desired use to get rid of the influence of maya (illusion). Maya has been called mohini (enchantress), cheri (maid), kalavali (artful) (22) saiyar ki putri (wealth) makhi (fly) (23) and mayee (goddess) (24) and thus its villainous form has been highlighted. Those who love it are scornfully called ‘sakat’ and ‘manmukh’. At one place, it has been called ‘koua’ (crow) (28). After knowing the many nom-de-plumes of maya and its worshippers, it is imperative to know about singing the praises of its domain – sagal bhavan teri maya (29), sabh jag dekhya maya chhaya (30), maya moh bhavjal hai te tribhavan saj mekhuli maya (32). From these lines is found the extent of the influence of maya. By saying ‘teri maya’ it has been considered necessary to separate it from the Creator. It is necessary to know how very small details are at work under the domain of maya, without which it is not possible to understand the true characteristics of maya. In Nanakbani we find details in an ample measure:
Trishna maya mohini
sut bandhap ghar naar (SGGS, 61)
The enchantress maya has laid a trap and
one caught therein is ever entangled in the
affairs of his son, kin, house and wife
Maat pita sut nehu ghanera
maya moh sabayee (SGGS, 15)
The parents love their son so much; it’s all maya’s trap.
Nari purakh sirjiai bikh maya moh piyaro
Man and woman were created; their love is illusory, a poison.
Dekh kutamb maya griha mandar
sakat janjaal pral paiya (906-907)
One delights at seeing family, building,
etc. caught in the web of maya
Maya sut dara jagat piara chori chug nit phasay
Maya endears one to son, wife, the world, like a bird caught in the net on seeing the grain.
Mat pita maya deh si rogi
rogi kutumb sanjogi (1153)
The parents and offspring suffer
under the influence of maya
Jarau aisi preet kutamb
sanbandhi maya moh pasari (1198)
Burn down such love with kith and kin; it is all illusory.
Even family relations as formed under the influence of maya are depicted as ultimately leading to suffering. Because –
Maya moh sarab janjala (SGGS, 222)
Attachment is illusory and it entraps.
Maya moh jag baadha jamkal. (SGGS, 412)
Love for illusory belongings leads one to hell.
Jam rajai ke heru aiye maya ke sangal bndh laya. (432)
The observers of King Yama came and chained one.
Maya has been likened to poison:
Maya magan ahinish mag johai
Naam na levai marai bikh khayee. (596)
Blinded by Maya, one goes on groping day and night
Without the light of His Name and dies of poisoning.
Bikh maya chit mohya bhayee,
chaturayee pat khoye (637)
Maya’s poison entraps one and cleverness leads to fall.
Man maya bandhyo sar jal.
Ghat ghat biyapyo rahyo bikh naal. (831)
On one’s head (mind) is laid the trap
The poison of which is embracing all.
Amrit chhod maha bikh pivai, maya ka diwana.
Inebriated with maya, one prefers poison to nectar.
Maya bikh bhuyangam nalai.
In dubidha ghar bahut jalai. (1029)
The serpent of maya goes with one.
In double-mindedness have many been ruined.
Maya has been equated to wine. Some examples:
Kal-kalvali maya mad mitha
man matwarala pivat rahai. (SGGS, 350)
Inebriated one is cheated by sweet taste
for maya which he goes on drinking.
Maya mad matai tripat na aavai. (832)
Ever inebriated with maya one never feels satiated.
Naam visaar maya mad piya (832)
Forgot Name and took to drinking (maya).
Wine makes one lose one’s senses. It is true that it gives intoxication for some time. One takes to drinking only for the intoxication. But truly speaking, this leads one astray. This is because the intoxication of maya creates ego. As a matter of fact, the physical from of the all-pervading maya is ego. Despite the intoxication of maya, being in its grip always makes one fear retribution (without reciting His Name):
Maya mamta pavahe khiali.
Jam pur phasehga jam pali. (993)
One in love for maya in mind
Is sure to be led to hell by Lord Yama.
Sakat jam ki kaan na chookai.
Jam ka dand na kabhoo mookai. (1030)
A vicious person is always afraid of Lord Yama
Can never escape the punishment of Lord Yama
Sakat phasi parai ikaila. Jam vas kiya andh duhela. (1031)
A vicious one alone has the noose around his neck.
Caught by Lord Yama, he undergoes untold suffering.
There are some other aspects concerning Maya:
Nehchal mehal nahi chhaya maya. (228)
Under the shadow of maya, one can’t be constant.
It is the nature of maya to be fickle. That is why it becomes the cause of sorrow. Its company is short-lived. Guru Nanak likens this form of maya to wealth or money:
Papa bajhoun hovai nahin mueya sath na jayee. (417)
It can’t be had without committing sin;
it can’t go (with one to the other world)
Haumai, mamta, maya sang na jayee Ram. (437)
Ego, attachment and money don’t
accompany one (to the other world)
Baba, maya sath na hoye. (597)
Maya doesn’t stand by one.
Maya sanch rajai ahankari.
Maya sath na chalai pyari.
The arrogant kings amass wealth.
But it does not stand by them, though so dear to them.
It is the allurement of maya which drives man to grab it and gets attached to it. But what does he gain? Just the cycle of births and deaths:
Sakat moorhai bandh bhavaiai
mar janmeh ayee jayee hey. (Explained above)
One dies again and again because of the influence of maya. Here Maar and Maya seem to be each other’s companion.
In the context of Buddhism, we talked of getting victorious over Maar. In Nanakbani also the way to get free of the grip of maya has been shown. This way can be called the ‘Path of meditating on His Name’. That is to say that Maya can be defeated by the weapon of Name. To support this more firmly, it seems necessary to cite more examples, as under:
Hari ka naam na chetai prani
bikal bhaya sang maya. (75)
One does not dwell on His Name
and gets mad entangled in Maya.
Maya magan ahinis mag johai
naam na levai marai bikh khayee. (59)
Absorbed in maya day and night
wanders around Without reciting
His Name, and dies of poisoning.
Naam visaar maya mad piya.
Bin gur bhagat nahi sukh thiya. (832)
Didn’t recite His Name, drank the wine of Maya.
Without Guru’s help, couldn’t recite His Name.
Nor did he find lasting happiness in any way.
Sakat maya kau bahu dhavai.
Naam visaar kaha sukh bhavi. (1029)
A vicious person runs after maya.
Can he be happy without His Name?
Now the question arises as to how to reach the treasure of Naam? This has been duly answered. Naam is attained with the True Guru’s grace. The state of those attuned to Naam is described in Nanakbani in this way:
Gur parsadi paya.
Tithai maya moh chukaya (73)
Attained through the Guru’s grace
When love for maya is gone.
Sab jag dekhya maya chhaya.
Nanak Gurmat Naam dhyiya. (354)
The entire world is seen under the shadow of maya.
Nanak, Naam is meditated upon by the Guru’s guidance.
Maya moh gur sabad jalaye.
Nirmal Naam sad hirdai dhyaye. (412)
Love for maya is burnt by the Guru’s word.
The holy Name is ever borne in mind.
Maya moh jag baadha jam kaal.
Bandha chhootai Naam samhaal. (412)
The world dies, caught in love for maya.
Can get rid (of it) by reciting His Name.
Maya moh bhavjal hai oudhu
sabad tarai kul tari. (908)
Love of maya is the ocean of births
Can be swum across by Guru’s word.
Ehu man maya mohya oudhu,
niksai sabad vichari (908)
This mind, enchanted by maya, can be
freed by pondering over the Word.
Satguru sabad aehai rang raata,
taj maya haumai bhrata hey. (1031)
Being in tune with True Guru’s Word,
One can be free of the illusion of maya.
Sakat nar sabad surt kyon payeeai.
Sabad surt bin ayeeai jayeeai. (1042)
A vicious person can’t fix his mind in the Word.
Without so fixing, coming and going continues.
Despite showing the path of liberation from maya, Guru Nanak says
Kya bharam kya maya kahiai
Jo tis bhvai soyee bhala (433)
What can be said of illusion or maya?
All is well that happens under His Will.
In short, everything comes to rest on ‘His Will’. What is this ‘Will’? In fact some logic had to be found in regard to the ‘changes’ taking place all around. For this quest in Shvetashvtar Upanisad, some theories have been advanced to explain the ‘changes’, just as, ‘Disposition, ‘Intention’, ‘Death’, ‘Divinity’ and the ‘philosophy of karma’ (action), etc. ‘Submitting before His Will’ comes under Iswarvad (Belief in God). Whatever is happening is all under divine design. One has to destroy one’s desires before the working of the Divine Design. This is the meaning of ‘Submitting before His Will.’ This is what is ordained in these words:
Jo tis bhavai soyee bhala. (433)
All that happens under His Will, is well.
Also, for a Guru-ward person, maya is not forbidden. It has been clearly stated in Sarang Vaar:
Gurmukh sabh pavit hai, dhan sampai maya.
Har arth jo kharchdai dendai sukh paya. (1246)
Wealth, property and other possession are all
Good for one who spends it in the Name of God
(For His creatures) and looks to the Guru for guidance.
Though Maar in Buddhist faith and Maya in Sikh faith appear to be synonyms, the ways shown for liberation are different. In the former, everything depends on the self-effort of the seeker. Tathagat Buddha has only to show the way:
Tumhehi kichanya. Tapang, akha tahey tathagat.
Penance is done by self. Tathagat only shows the way.
While in Guru-tradition it is, first and foremost, the Guru’s grace and ultimately God’s grace without which liberation from the influence of maya is not possible. In both the old traditions of India, Brahmin and Shramin (34) this is the basic difference. According to Brahminism, moksha or salvation is God’s grace. But in the Shramin tradition, ‘Nibban’ or ‘Kevalya’ is the result of the seeker’s own efforts. Thervadi (Boudh parampara) and Jain’s Kevalya fall under the Shramin parampara and the Guru parampara supports the Brahminical tradition.
The study of the concept of ‘Sin’ in reference to human beings as presented in Buddha and Guru traditions can help in understanding the experience of sin by man.
Quotes and References:
‘It has been said in the third Pitik ‘Abhipampiti’ (second granth) of Pali Tipiti that ‘It is not possible for a woman be a ‘Maar’. Refer to T.W. Rhys Davids (Edit) Vibhang, Pali Text Society, London (1904), Reprint, 1978, p. 336.
Sambodhi has been rightly said to be swaibodhan (self-address). Swaibodh has such knowledge as can be attained by one’s own efforts. That is to say, it does not need any divine grace or human help (except for showing the way).
I. B. Henner (Editor) Madhur Ath Vilasini, Pali Text Society, London (1946), Reprint 1979, p. 282.
V. Fasthal (Translator) Sutnipat, Sacred Book Of East Series, Moti Lal Banarsi Das, Delhi, Second Edition: 1988 (First edition: Oxford, 1881) Volume 10, Part II, pp. 68-71 (Padhan Satt: Gatha 424-448).
Bhadatt Anand Koslayan (Translator) Nidan Katha (Jatak Ath Katha – volume I), Hindi Sahit Sammelan, Prayag 1941, pp.143-147 (Maar Vijaya)
L. Pheer (Editor) Sanyukt Nikaye, Pali Text Society, London, Vol.3 (1890), Reprint 1975: Pp.188-189.
Ibid, volume V (11898) Reprint 1976, P.421.
Ibid, volume I (1884) Reprint, 1973, P.115.
Ditto, Padhan Sutt.
(a) Bhadant Anand Komlayan Ukt.
Ref. G.P. Malal Sekar, Dictionary of Pali Proper Names (In two volumes), Pali Text Society, London, 1906, Vol. II, pp.614-615.
Dhampada Gatha: 153-54. Also refer: Mahavag Vinayadhik – Bodhikatha.
Sanyukt Nikaye, volume 1,p. 124 Athkotvaha ‘ch artic h ardhitro.
T.W. Rhys Davids and G.E. Carpenter (editor) Digha Nikaye, Pali Text Society, London (1903) Reprint, 1982, Vol. II.
As Maar was not leaving Buddha alone, in the same manner Satan had continued to follow Mohammad. When Mohammad went for the Haj pilgrimage, Satan continued to divert Mohammad from the performance of the pilgrimage. But he remained determined and sent ‘Lahaul’ after him. He also hurled a stone at him. But the Satan continued to try to lead him astray. Then he hurled the second stone at Satan. Thus he hurled stones seven times and only then did Satan leave him alone. The reference to Satan is found in Nanakbani also. See