The Raaga: The whole Bani of the holy Sri Guru Granth Sahib has been ‘classified under 31 Raagasand31 different Raaga forms (Parkaars) thus making a total of 62 (See Appendix-1). Raaga markings on Gurbani as heading is a clear indication for singing any piece of Gurbani according to the prescribed Raaga and that has been ordained in Sikh tradition as fundamental Importance of Raagas has been stated as follows:
Sabhnaan raagaan wich so bhalla bhaaee jit wasiaa man aaee. 1
Dhan su raag surangrhe aalaapat sabh tikh jaae. 2
Gunh govind gaavah sabh harijan raag ratan rasnaa aalaap*
Under Gurmat Sangeet tradition, Raagas are in propagation with their original melodic forms . Sikh musicians uninfluenced by the changes in Shudh Thaat notes as Bilawal scales from Kafi Scale, kept the traditional purity of Gurmat Sangeet in practical form. As a sequel, a tradition which is more than 500 years old, is in existence as a Sikh Musical tradition. These original Raaga forms of Gurmat Sangeet are a unique contribution to Indian Music’s Raaga tradition.
These Raagas (31 Main and 31 Raaga forms) are Shudh 4 Chhayalag 5 (admixture of two Raagas or including the melodic reflection of any other Raaga) and Sankeeran* (combination of more than two Raagas). Originality of seasonal 7 and regional 8 Raagas under ‘Raag forms is another important feature of Gurmat Sangeet System. With a view to disseminate the divine message to the people, Guru Nanak Sahib toured different places. These travels of Guru Nanak are popularly known as Udasis. During these long travellings (udasis) Guru Nanak Sahib used Raagas belonging to local tradition to propagate his message, of which the Deccani Raaga 9 tradition deserves a special mention. Dakhani in word in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib indicates about the southeren Music system. In Gurbani, the Raaga Dhyana 10 of some Raagas have been given with a view to express the nature of different Raagas in their spiritual context accroding to the Gurmat.
- 1 Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Page 1423.
- 2. Ibid., Page 958.
- 3. Ibid., Page 821.
- 4. Siree, Maajh, Gaorhee, Aasaa, Dhanaasree, Soohee, Maaroo, Tookharee,
- 5. Nine Raaga forms of Gaorhee and Aasaa Kaafee, Tilang Kafee, Soohee Lalit
Bilawal Mangal, Parbhatee Bibhaas etc.
- 6. Gaorhee Poorbee Deepkee.
- 7. Malhaar, Basantetc.
- 8. Maajh, Aasaa, Tookharee etc.
- 9. Gaorhee Dakhnee, Wadhans Dakhnee, Bilwal Dakhnee, Raamkalee Dakhnee
Maaroo Dakhnee, Parbhatee Dakhnee.
- 10. Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Page 83, 31 1, 585, 791,849, 950, 1027, 1285, 1419, 1425 etc