|1921||Sri Nankana Sahib’s keys and control was handed over to SGPC. The news of Nankana Massacre spread like wild fire. Within hours Sikhs from all everywhere marched on to Nanakana Sahib, despite the road blocks, re-routed trains and deployment of troops to cordon off the area. By the afternoon, 1000 Akalis and some members of the SGPC confronted the Deputy Commissioner and were resolved to advance on the Gurudwara or be shot by the troops. Bhai Kartar Singh Jabbar with a Jatha of 2200 entered the Gurudwara Janam Asthan, Shri Nankana Sahib defying Deputy Commissioner’s orders. The show of force at this time retrieved the Sikh prestige. The commissioner of Lahore, M. C.M. King yielded and asked Bhai Kartar Singh Jhabbar and Sardar Mehtab Singh to form a committee of seven members which immediately took control of the Gurudwara under the Presidentship of S. Harbans Singh of Attari, a moderate Chief Khalsa Diwan leader. He took over in the name of SGPC. The troops and the police were withdrawn. -Ref "The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995 "Babbar Akali Movement, A Historical Survey," by Dr. Gurcharan Singh, Aman Publications, 1993.|
The Nankana tradegy had drawn the line. The Punjab government was on the side of the Mahants where as Sikh masses and the Akali leadership drew sustenance from national forces. The Government, calculatingly, followed a new policy. It tried to supress the extremists and weaken teh akali agitation by offereing many baits. Such circumstances led to a long struggle known as the Akali movement, which in turn prepared the ground for the genesis of violent movement consisting of those Akalis who were militant and non-cooperators. It came to be known as the Babbar Akali Movement.
|1924||Shaheedi Saka Gangsar Jaito – when the agitation of Jaito took a serious turn. Under the orders of Nabha State Authorities, Punjab, police opened fire to prevent the march of the Sikh devotees to their holy shrine at Jaito – Gurdwara Tibbi Sahib. More than 400 died on the spot, yet many valiant Sikhs continued their undeterred march and successfully reached the holy shrine. AMongb the dead included Sikh, Hindu and Muslim Indian as well as "goraa" policemen on the pay of British. Over 1,500 Sikhs were arrested and imprisoned during this incident. (see description below on jaito).|
==> WHERE IS JAITO?
A village under Nabha, which falls on the Bathinda-Ferozpur railway line. It is 96 miles from Lahore and 17 miles from Bathinda.
WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF JAITO?
On this place situated near a fort, is a historical Gurudwara of Guru Gobind Singh Patshah. Maharaja Hira Singh constructed the beautiful buildings of this Gurudwara. The sarowar is popularly known as "Gangsar". About a mile and a half north of Jaito is "Tibhi Sahib" Gurudwara, where Guru Gobind Singh Patshah used to organize and participate in the evening recitation of Rehras. Both Gurudwaras have extensive land sanctioned to it by the Nabha rulers. Additionally, extensive financial resources are made available on an annual basis from the Nabha rulers and the surrounding villages. A maela celebration is held every 7th of Pooh month (Dec.-Jan.) and Katak (Oct.-Nov.) Puranmashi. Jaito’s markets are well renowned. People come from far distances to buy and sell their herds.
WHY AKALIS COURTED ARREST?
The key issue involved was resoration of Maharaja Ripudaman Singh of Nabha. Maharaja of Nabha, well-known for his pro-Tat Khalsa Proclivities, had a dispute with Maharaja of Patiala, known for this pro-government role. Although Maharaja of Nabha had absolutely no dispute with the government, as a result of mediation, he was forced to abdicate in July 1923. Col. Michin, with the help of troops and armoured cars, took the Maharaja by surprise on July 8, 1923 and taunted him with the query, "Where is that Akali?" The news of deposition by the government raised a strom of protest against the Government’s interefernce in Nabha and was decsribed as a challenge to the Akali movement. As a result tensions mounted. The Akalis, in defiance of state orders, continued to hold diwan indefinitely. The Nabha police in order to arrest all the Akalis, including the one reading the holy Granth Sahib, was said to have disrupted the Akhand Path on Sept. 14, 1923. This dispute took such a tragic shape and got so inflames by Feb. 21, 1924 that several people lost their lives. After sixteen shaheedi jathas apart from one from Bengal and another from Canada, the agitation process was completed two years later, on August 6, 1925, after the concurrent bhog of 101 Akand Paaths. -Ref. Mahan Kosh "The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995
==> NANAKANA SAHIB: also known as "Nanakiyana", is the residence of Guru Nanak Dev Patshah. It is 48 miles south of Lahore in Saekhuyana district and was known as Raipur. Later, its name changed to "Talwandi RaiBhoe Di" and subsequently to Nanakiyana. In sunmat 1526, Guru Nanak Patshah’s prakash initially appeared at this place. The prakash place is marked with a beautiful Gurudwara that accompanies Guru’s place of residence. This Gurudwara has extensive jagir associated with it.
Other Gurudwaras nearby include:
- Kiyara Sahib: east of the city, the place where the fields grazed by GuruSahib’s cattle were returned to their original condition.
- Tanbhu Sahib: north of the city, the place where Guru Nanak rested under a tree after transacting "Sacha Sauda".
- Patti Sahib: the place where Guru Nanak preached to his own teacher and turned him into a disciple.
- BalLilla: the place where Guru Nanak Dev Patshah used to play as a child. Nearby is the pool of water that was dug especially for Guru nanak Dev Patshah, by orders of RaiBhular.
- Maal Ji Sahib: the place where Guru Sahib used to graze his cattle. This the is same place where once Guru Sahib was resting under the shade of the tree. As the shade moved as a result of changing sunlight, GuruSahib was always under the shade of created by a snake’s fins.
- Gurudwaras marking the visits of Guru Arjun Dev Patshah and Guru Gobind Singh Patshah. Guru Arjun Dev Patshah visit this place during his travels of religious places. While Guru Gobind Singh Patshah visited this place in Jaeth 11th. GurSikhs have established an annual maela on this day.
- Guru Nanak Dev’s gurudwara near Sangrur, which is one mile north of village Mangwal. Guru Nanak Dev stayed here for 15 days. Guru Har Gobind Patshah also visited this place. The gurudwara and nearby tank of water were constructed by Raja Raghibir Singh Jind.
- Guru Nanak Dev’s gurudwara, south of village Dipalpur in district Mantgumari. When Guru Sahib visited this place and rested under a dried "Piple" tree, it came alive and turned healthy green. Nearby is the place where Guru Nanak Patshah cured Noranga named individual.
-Ref. Mahan Kosh.