Appendix – XXXXI to XXXXIX
Pt. Chuni Lal Jaitli, S. D. O. Canals living in Chichoki Malian Canal Rest House, Distt. Sheikhupura with members of his family was murdered by Muslims. On 27.8.47 they were attacked by Muslims and looted and abducted as under:-
Pt. Nand Lal, brother of Pt. Chuni Lal who went to complain to Police was thrown into the Upper Chenab canal by police and drowned. Pt. Chuni Lal was shot dead later by Ali Mohd., Lambardar, of Nokrian village with the help of police.
Mr. Sena Pati Ram Sahni, Distt. Engineer of District Board at Lahore was set upon by subordinates on 12.9.47 and sawn and brutally murdered.
THE PUNJAB NOT A MUSLIM PROVINCE
I place my claim, wrote Master Tara Singh upon the fact that the Punjab is not a Muslim Province. I do not even admit that the Muslims are in a majority in the population. Punjab History in the Sikh History. It is the birth-place of the Sikh religion and the Sikh Gurus; most if not all the Punjab Martyrs are the Sikh martyrs. The Sikhs are the only people who take pride in Punjabi culture and language. Muslim poet will sing of Mecca and Madina; a Hindu poet will sing of Ganga and Banaras; but the Sikh poet will sing of the Ravi and Chanab.
EXHORTATION TO NON-MUSLIMS NOT TO QUIT PAKISTAN
In a speech of June, 18 (1947) Acharya Kripalani said, The representatives of minorities from East Bengal, the West Punjab and Sind have approached me for advice as to what they should do when the territories they live in become part of an independent State of Pakistan.
Most of them fear that their lives, honour and property which are unsafe now and would become even more unsafe then. I do not share that fear. On the contrary I hope that once the State of Pakistan is established its Government or Governments would have enough sense of reality not to discredit themselves by unfair treatment of the minorities.
Until now the Muslim League felt that it was its interest to create an atmosphere of conflict and strife. Henceforth it would obviously be in its interest to create order, for the spirit of lawlessness roused against the minorities would sooner or later be turned against its own Government.
January 4, 1947.
Rawalpindi, January 4. – Reports of further raids in villages of Hazara District were received last night. According to the latest information Mallach, a prominent village of about 400 non-Muslims houses situated between Dunga Gali and Nathia Gali Was raided on the afternoon of January 2 by a mob of about 400 armed with deadly weapons.
It is stated that after ransacking several houses they set fire to them and burnt several persons alive.
Arjan Singh, the only survivor of a family of a dozen persons, who arrived here last night after travelling 60 miles on foot, mostly over snow-covered ground, related his pathetic tale to pressmen here.
Seven front rank leaders of the Punjab Muslim League were arrested in Lahore on Friday afternoon when they obstructed the Police in carrying out searches in the Muslim League National Guards Headquarters on McLeod Road.
The arrested persons included Khan Iftikhar Husain of Mamdot, Mr. Firoz Khan Noon, Sardar Shaukat Hyat Khan, Begum Shah Nawaz, Mian Iftikhar-ud-Din, Mr. Mumtaz Daultana and Syed Amir Husain Shah.
Hundreds of students of the Islamia College who had collected there, staged a wild demonstration, about a dozen of them climbing on the top of the police van as it removed the leaders.
The police action followed the Punjab Government’s order under the Criminal Law Amendment Act, declaring the Muslim League National Guard and the Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh as illegal organisations. Raids on the headquarters of these volunteer corps were carried out simultaneously.
A strong police force, headed by Mr. P. B. Roy, Superintendent of police (C.I.D.) armed with search warrants, came to the McLeod Office of the National Guards at about 10-30 a.m. The inmates led by Mian Iftikhar-ud-din offered them passive resistance and refused to let them carry out the search.
The inmates presumably contacted other leaders by telephone, whereupon the Khan of Mamdot, President of the Provincial League, Malik Firoz Khan Noon, Sardar Shaukat Hyat Khan, Mr. Mumtaz Daultana and Begum Shah Nawaz motered to the place.
By this time the search party had been reinforced by lathi police. The police, however, did not force an entry till after two hours persuasion.
Earlier, the houses of Major Khurshid Anwar, Salar of the All-India Muslim National Guards and Mr. Amir Husain Shah and another officer of the Guards were searched.
The officials of the Sewak Sangh did not obstruct the search at any of the 21 offices of the organisation in Lahore raided by the police on Friday.
Mr. Amir Hussain Shah, immediately before his arrest, declared that this unwarranted attack on the Muslim League National Guards seas part and parcel of the general onslaught of the present Coalition Government on the civil liberties of the people of the Punjab.
Besides the seizure of 1,000 steel helmets the police took possession of a large quantity of assorted volunteers badges bearing the insignia of dagger, sword and revolver.
There was organised defiance by the Muslim League in Lahore of the order prohibiting demonstrations and processions, and this resulted in a number of arrests in different part of the city. Prominent among the arrested persons were seven Muslim League M.L.As. who at about 1-30 p.m. marched out of the Assembly Chamber, where the League Assembly party had been meeting since the morning to take stock of the situation created by the leaders’ arrest, shouting slogans and proceedings in a procession towards the Mall.
They were followed by a posse of armed police headed by Mr. Fearn, the District Magistrate and taken into custody when they had crossed the bounds of the Assembly Chamber.
Earlier, two leaguers were arrested in front of the Assembly for disobeying the police order to vacate the place.
The M.L.As. who courted arrest on Saturday were Begum Tassaddaq Hussain, Sufi Abdul Hamid, Chaudari Mohamad Akram, Malik Wazir Mohamed, Rana Nasrullah Khan, Rai Mohamed Anwar Kharral and Chaudhry Zafrullah Khan.
The Muslim League agitation assumed dangerous proportions in Amritsar where the police had to open fire on several occasions on Monday.
A Sikh constable was beaten to death by a wild mob in the Civil Lines. The Additional District Magistrate, Mr. Ikramul Haq, was brutally assaulted, being severely wounded in the head and a murderous assault was made on a Sub-Inspector by a demonstrator who was killed by police fire.
Altogether 29 constables were injured. The Government communique described the Amritsar situation as exceedingly serious. Troops were requisitioned, but not used.
At Rawalpindi too, the police had to resort to firing to disperse the demonstrators. Further details are lacking.
The Lahore district courts were raided twice, first by Muslim students who took the authorities unawares. They ransacked every room, smashing windowpanes, mocking at the court employees and tampering with their files.
The second invasion of the courts was by women and children who were even more difficult to handle, although police had arrived on the scene.
Earlier the women processionists had stormed the Secretariat creating considerable nuisance for some length of time. Young schoolboys throughout the day indulged in holding up vehicular traffic on the Mall by squatting in the middle of the road at the crossings.
By sundown there was the usual large procession which ended in a lathi-charge by the police.
The Muslim League civil disobedience movement was called off on Wednesday following a settlement between the Punjab Government and the leaders of the Provincial League.
The Government has accordingly ordered the release of all prisoners, detained under trial or convicted, other than those accused or convicted of voluntarily causing grievous hurt. It has also removed the restrictions on public meeting in all districts, the ban on processions, on military drill and on the carrying of arms remains.
The Government has accepted Mr. Jinnah’s suggestion that the Public Safety Ordinance be replaced by a legislative enactment and a Bill will be introduced in the ensuing Budget Session of the Punjab Assembly.
Nine persons were killed in Lahore on Tuesday including a student of the D.A.-V. College, as a culmination of the mass Hindu-Sikh demonstrations.
Communal rioting broke out in the evening when a procession of Hindus and Sikhs clashed with Muslims at Matti Chowk inside the walled city.
The police arrived on the scene and dispersed the rioters by fire. Later eight dead were removed to the mortuary under heavy police guard.
A clash between the students of the D.A.-V. College and the police took place outside the College hostel. One student was shot dead.
Lahore, March 5. – The Governor of the Punjab has issued a proclamation under Section 93 of the Government of India Act, 1935.
The evening train from Batala was stopped near Sharifpura. It was attacked by a large crowd armed with hatchets and knives. Several Hindus and Sikhs were killed. When the train eventually arrived at Amritsar, it was found that there were pools of blood in several compartments including the women’s compartments.
Amritsar, March 7. – Amritsar is a veritable inferno. There were several fires in different parts of the city throughout Thursday. Several shops in Hall Hazar, Katra Jaimal Singh and the surrounding residential areas have been completely or partially destroyed. The Police and the Military continued to patrol throughout the day and night.
Casualties in the Civil Hospital are 27 killed and over 100 injured since Wednesday. Several casualties have not been reported to hospitals.
The police fired several times, but with little effect. One cinema house is completely gutted.
A large number of Hindus and Sikhs living in predominantly Muslim localities have been evacuated to the Golden Temple or the Civil Lines. The fate of several others still left bf-hind is unknown. Is stray assaults severe brutalities are being prepetrated by the assailants.
A number of persons were killed and many injured in a communal clash in Multan on Thursday. Some shops were set on fire, while many other were looted. The District Magistrate has imposed the curfew in the city from -6 p.m. to 7 a.m. He has also banned all public meetings and processions for a period of one month under the Public Safety Ordinance.
Latest information gathered from civil and other hospitals1 shows that so far eight bodies-seven Sikh and one of a Muslim constable-have reached the mortuary, says an earlier message delayed in transmission. The dead include Mohan Singh, a student of the local Khalsa College.
The total number of injured admitted to hospitals is 38. Injuries in most cases are from swords, axes and hatchets. The injured have been picked up from all parts of the city.
Some bodies are reported to be still lying on road sides. Hostile crowds interfered with the fire brigades in the performance of their duties. The municipal and Sewa Society’s fire brigades are proving helpful.
A senior officer of the Punjab Government described the communal situation in Rawalpindi as most anxious.
Terrible rioting has broken out in the city and the villages in between Rawalpindi and Murree. Killing, loot and arson have been rife and the minorities according to official information are in a bad way.
Amritsar is quiet except that some people attempted to defy the curfew and came into conflict with Police and Military patrols. There was no casualty.
In Jullundur nine persons died and about 36 were injured. Multan is said to be settling down.
In Lahore, of the four cases of stabbing on Friday one proved fatal. Another person was shot down for looting.
An A.P.I. message from Rawalpindi says that a mob drawn from rural areas attacked some mohallas last night. The raiders were driven away by the residents of the mohallas after a pitched battle. The attack took place during curfew hours. No train left from Rawalpindi for any direction last night.
The raiders are still reported to be in the outskirts of Rawalpindi. The military has been posted at strategic points.
The total number of casualties in two days’ of disturbances, according to official estimates, are 50 killed and about 200 injured.
After curfew hours on Saturday morning stray assaults have been reported from different parts of the city.
The Up Frontier Mail, heading towards Peshawar, terminated at Rawalpindi on Friday night without completing its journey up to Peshawar. The train was detained near Chaklala by a mob of 300 to 400 armed raiders.
About half a dozen cases of arson are reported to have been committed in Rawalpindi during curfew hours.
Details available of Friday’s hold up of the Down Frontier Mail show that the train was stopped by a mob of armed villagers, about 800 strong, at the Taxila railway station. They pushed out passengers and attacked them with hatchets and lathis, resulting in injuries to about 50 persons. People from Hazara District, in the Frontier Province, invaded the Muree Region, and the bazars of Jhikka Gali, Ghora Gali and Lower Topa had been burned, it was officially announced in Lahore on Sunday evening.
According to confirmed reports, the major portion of Murree town, famed health resort in Northern India, is completely gutted by fires.
The situation in Rawalpindi is reported to have quietened since Saturday night, according to information received in Lahore. Tension, however, continues.
Raiders from rural areas, who attempted to force entry into some of the mohallas in Rawalpindi on Friday night and had collected in the outskirts of the city, are reported to have set fire to some of the surrounding villages inhabited by both the communities. The loss of property and life has not yet been ascertained.
According to travellers reaching Lahore over 100 people were killed during the disturbances in Multan and about 150 injured. Many families are reported to have perished in the conflagration which raged in the city for about two days. The loss is estimated at about 50 lacs. Ludhiana and Rohtak figured among the disturbed towns on Wednesday. The situation in Attock district is described as showing no signs of improvement. Increased Military aid is being provided there. Bands of persons moving about are being intercepted.
Looting and arson according to the Punjab Government communique, has been reported from several areas in Attock District. Two attempts were made to raid the town of Mianwali by a large number of Pathans.
The rural area of Rawalpindi still gives cause for anxiety, but there is distinct improvement in the north-east, where troops are moving about on a wide scale. This was officially announced in Lahore on Wednesday evening.
About 10,000 men equipped with arms, attempted to raid Mianwali town on Tuesday morning. The raiders surrounded the town. The District Magistrate, however, tactfully handled the situation with the help of local Pathans and officials. No loss of life or property is reported.
A case of arson is reported from Moghalpura, a suburb of Lahore at a distance of five miles. It is stated that before 1 a.m. on Thursday a mob of about 40 men, armed with axes and lathis, raided the premises of Craco Stationery Works Limited and set fire to the Factory. Lahore Corporation and Railway fire engines arrived on the scene and fought the flames for over four hours.
After conference at Rawalpindi with Military Officials, Sardar Baldev Singh and party visited the refugee camp where about 9,000 persons are seeking shelter.
The Defence Member later received deputations of Hindu and Sikh leaders from Rawalpindi and Attock districts who apprised him of the first hand details about the situation in the two districts.
The party returned to Lahore in the evening.
Communal tension flared up at Khushab on Friday resulting in some shops and religious places being burned, according to information received from Sargodha. The District Magistrate and the Superintendent of Police hurried to the spot with police and Military detachments and brought the situation under control.
The District Magistrate has promulgated Section 144 Criminal Procedure Code, prohibiting assembly of five persons find carrying of arms throughout the District for an indefinite period.
Sir Evan Jenkins, Governor of the Punjab, accompanied by Sir John Bennet, Inspector-General of Police, paid a flying visit to Sargodha on Saturday morning. During their one hour stay in Sargodha, they discussed the communal situation with the local officials and non-officials. The Governor flew to Mianwali on Saturday to acquaint himself with the communal situation there.
There was a two hour battle between the police and military on one side and the raiders from across the Indus on the other at Jand, in tehsil Pindigheb, Campbellpur district. Four raiders were killed.
The situation in the jurisdiction of police stations Chauntra, Fatehjung, Pindigheb and Pind Sultani is reported to be exceedingly serious, says an official announcement on Friday evening.
Reports have been received of riot, arson and murders from villages in the Chakwal Tehsil, District Jhelum. Dudial was attacked by a mob of 2,500 and although the military and police stationed there exchanged hot fire with the looters, they were unable to save the village from being burned. They were however, able to evacuate most of the people.
In Attock reports of looting and arson are still being received in district headquarters.
All has been quiet in Jullundur, Ferozepur, Kangra, Sheikhupura and Gurdaspur.
Amritsar continued to be quiet and there have been no further incidents of any importance. There is still considerable nervousness in the city and also in the rural parts of the district.
All districts in the Ambala Division report no incidents and the situation is quiet everywhere. Rounding up the riot situation in the Punjab a spokesman of the Punjab Government says: It is quite clear from reports from all over the affected districts that these disgraceful scenes are due entirely to completely false rumours spread deliberately by mischief-mongers and bad characters. The favourite method appears to be to spread a rumour that a religious building of one community or the other has been attacked or burned.
The Frontier Government issued the following communique on Saturday night on the communal situation in the Province:-
Relief parties reached Chajian, south-east of Haripur, yesterday and found that in Thursday’s disturbances there 47 Hindus and Sikhs had been killed and three wounded. There are now about 1,500 evacuees in Haripur town.
At Garhi Habibullah, also in Hazara District, a place of worship was set on fire and three shops looted.
In Peshawar City one Hindu was stabbed this afternoon and a case of arson occurred in the Sadar Bazar area last night. The curfew is still in force in Peshawar city and Sadar Bazar.
Reports have been received of about 90 forcible conversions of Hindus and Sikhs from the village of Mushtarzai and Sheikhan in Peshawar Tehsil.
The situation in Khushab and the Soon Valley in Shahpur district, still remains tense. A case of attempted arson has been reported from Khud, a village in police station Khushab, and reinforcements have been sent there, the announcement continues.
In Attock District, Pindigheb and Fatehjung tehsils are still seriously disturbed and reports of looting, arson and casualties are still being received from different villages all over these two tehsils. The military dispersed by firing a crowd which had assembled to attack Adhwal, in tehsil Fatehjung.
Trouble still persists in the Kahuta tehsil of Rawalpindi district and the Deputy Inspector-General of Police is personally dealing with conditions there.
Peshawar, March 20. – Red Shirts moved about in the city yesterday afternoon and the streets of this interesting city, which is normally colourful, became more so with the splashes of red of India’s RED Army.2
Two hours after they had entered the Hindu area where the silversmiths live. I saw Hindus and Sikhs emerge from their houses, for the first time in seven days. They seemed dazed by the sunlight. It was obvious that they were still nervous for they did not venture beyond the barbed wire barricade at the end of the lane.
The Punjab Government on Thursday estimated total casualties from communal disturbances in the provinces up to midday March 19, at 2,049 dead and 1,103 seriously injured.
The Government made it clear that the figures from Rawalpindi and Attock districts were not reliable. It was feared that when correct figures were ascertained, the list would be formidable.
Mr. Jinnah made a speech to the Muslim Chamber of Commerce, Bombay.
It was Mr. Gandhi, he said, who first raised the point. I after due deliberation, say that exchange of population is necessary and it has to be done. It cannot be done by a private organisation.
Peshawar-Hindu and Sikh passengers on the railway train which left Kohat for Rawalpindi this morning were attacked by a mob armed with firearms at Gorzai, 17 miles from Kohat. Six persons were killed and 20 injured, says a communique is sued by the Frontier Government tonight. The wounded have been taken to Jan. A superintendent of police with a detachment of troops and some armed cars has proceeded to Gorzai.
According to unofficial estimates the number of casualties as a result of the looting of the passengers train between Lakband and Samigund, on the Kohat-Rawalpindi railway line, is believed to be six killed and 21 injured, says a Rawalpindi message. One woman, with her child is reported to be missing.
It is alleged that the raiders entered a women’s compartment of the train and started looting and killing passengers of the minority community.
A large number of non-Muslims are leaving Kohat following Wednesday’s incident. The exodus of members of the minority community from various Frontier towns continues and streams of people are arriving in Rawalpindi by every train coming from the Kohat side. On the other hand a large number of people are migrating from Rawalpindi to places in the United Provinces, Delhi and Patiala State and other towns of south-east Punjab. Tension continues to persist in Rawalpindi town. About 7,000 Hindus and Sikhs-nearly-a quarter of the minority population of Peshawar city have left Peshawar city for the Punjab and other parts of India since March 20, declared a source connected with the Congress here,
Fifteen men were killed and 32 injured in Amritsar on Friday afternoon when communal trouble broke out again after about five weeks respite.
The police had to open fire to quell the riot. The city, where four localities were set on fire, has been placed under a 24 hour curfew.
British troops are once again patrolling the deserted streets. A high police official told a representative of the Civil & Military Gazette that the situation late on Friday night, was well in hand.
Inquiries made by the Associated Press of India at 12.30 a.m. showed that 14 places including two factories in Qilla Bhangian, three shops in Kucha Chaparwala and eight houses, seven in Kucha Swaroop Singh and one in Katra Sher Singh, were entirely gutted in Friday’s conflagrations.
The fire brigade recovered some pieces of cloth soaked in kerosene oil, with a broken bottle of the kerosene oil, in front of half dozen houses with their doors slightly burned in a lane in Katra Sher Singh adjoining the Royal Talkies, which was burned during the last disturbances.
The trouble started in Lachhmansar area, where about 5000 Muslims had collected in a mosque in Chowk Pragdas for Friday prayer.
Peshawar, April 16. – Numerous fires were raging in Dera Ismail Khan yesterday. The situation in the city is serious, according to the communique issued last night by the Frontier Government.
Troops and the constabulary have been sent from Bannu to assist the Military and the Police already in the Dera Ismail Khan town. The curfew has been imposed.
A procession started from the Muslim League Office yesterday morning and divided itself into different parties. One party went towards the courts and the post office and caused damage to the buildings. The other parties went into the city and set fire to shops and residential houses in different parts of the town.
According to unofficial reports from D. I. Khan several shops in Pawinda Bazar have been gutted. Fire is spreading to Bhatianwala Bazar. A cinema house, the Town Hall, the V. B. College and one place of worship were set ablaze. Hall the city of Dera Ismail Khan is burned, according to information reaching Peshawar. The fires which started on Tuesday are reported to be under control. The total number of casualties is ten killed and 22 injured.
On Tuesday night the village of Paroa, near Dera Ismail Khan, was raided by unknown persons, who indulged in arson and looting. It is understood three persons were killed in Paroa and 54 shops and houses were burned.
Peshawar April, 18. – According to an unofficial report received from Tank today, about 50 shops have been burned there, three persons killed and three injured. The situation is now under control.
The village of Gumal Bazar, near Tank, was raided last night by some unknown persons.
Trouble is reported to have spread in rural areas north and south of Dera Ismail Khan, where looting and rioting is reported from some villages in the jurisdiction of Paharpur and Paroa police stations. One person was fatally stabbed this morning in Peshawar near the Cunningham Park.
Peshawar April 28. – Since the commencement of the atrocities in December last in Hazara, casualties including those in parts of D. I. Khan has totalled 400 killed and 150 wounded revealed Mr. Mehr Chand Khanna, Finance Minister, at a press conference here yesterday.
Fifty places of worship had been burned, over 300 persons forcibly converted and about 1,600 shops and houses burned and looted.
The communal rioting in Lahore on Friday crossed the highest degree of bitterness and conflict ever witnessed in the capital of the Punjab with the biggest conflagration in its history raging in a dozen localities within the walled city.
The day drew to a close with the huge fires reduced to smouldering embers, but a high wave of panic and tension sweeping the whole town.
The stabbings, which started in the morning soon after the relaxation of the curfew hours at eight, continued unabated throughout the day. The total number of casualties collected from different hospitals up to midnight on Friday showed that 18 bodies were brought from different parts of the city and the number of injured was in the neighbourhood of 46. There were about 20 cases of maimed or injured reported to hospitals, and these persons were discharged after first aid.
While the fate of Lahore hangs in the balance awaiting the decision of the Boundary Commission, a large number of people have already started quitting Lahore. They particularly include domestic servants, labourers, and a sprinkling of the business community belonging to the minorities. The Sikhs, however, are determined not to show the white feather. Lahore is their home town, they say.
The unsettled and uncertain conditions which have prevailed in the city for some times now have contributed largely to the large scale exodus. The recent four week communal out burst has resulted in bringing business to a standstill. A large number of big business firms have already shifted their head offices from. Lahore.
The peace of Lahore was disturbed during the early hours of the morning when a country-made bomb was thrown in a place of worship inside Masti Gate. The missile exploded with a loud report. The priest of the shrine, who received injuries, was removed to hospital.
A country-made incendiary bomb exploded this morning in Kucha Moolomata, near the Water Works and caused a fire.
Immediately after the relaxation of the curfew, one person was fatally stabbed on Fleming Road, near Qilla Gujar Singh. Another knife attack took place near Lohari Mandi. The victim was removed to hospital in a precarious condition. Upto 10 p.m. on Thursday night as many as 20 cases of fire raising were reported from different localities in the city and suburbs, the areas affected being Katra Purbia, Kucha Hawagaran, Brandreth Road, Ichhra, Moti Bazar, Kucha Masadimal, Akbari Mandi, Bhati Gate, Sheranwala Gate, Lohari Gate and outside Mochi Gate. In Amritsar about a dozen casualties including one dead, had been brought to the civil hospital up to 12 noon.
The associated Press of India was officially informed late on Thursday night that there was no improvement in the communal situation in Lahore on Tuesday. Military patrolling continued in the city and suburbs.
Thirty-five fires blazed in Lahore during the day eight of which were of a serious nature, the localities seriously affected were Mohalla Sarin, Chowk Surjan Singh, Shahi Mohalla, Mohalla Sathan (inside Bhati Gate) and the Garhi Shahu, Mozang and Faiz Bagh areas.
All available military fire brigades, in addition to the Corporation fire engines were fighting the flames in different sectors of the city till late at night. In Chowk Surjan Singh, the fire-fighting personnel was fired upon by unknown assailants. The police fired a few rounds.
Twenty-two persons were killed and 25 injured by fire in Sadar Bazar in the Cantonment early in the morning.
Twenty-two persons were killed and 16 others injured in knife attacks during the day. Three persons were killed on the Grand Trunk Road near the Hide Market in the Faiz Bagh area in the morning. Five others were assaulted in the same locality. Three persons were fatally stabbed on Akram Road in Sultanpura, a suburb of the city. Two more persons were killed near Bharatnagar in the same locality.
1. On 12-9-1947, Mr. S. R. Sawhney, Lahore District Board Engineer, who opted for Pakistan, was murdered in his office. The Lahore District Board Office-by his subordinates, who tide him to a pole and sawed him in two. The Government of West Punjab has pleaded it cannot trace murderers.
2. A non-Muslim Refugee Camp established in Arya Samaj at Lyallpur was raided at 10 p.m. on the 2nd October, 1948, resulting in 500 killed, 200 girls abducted with many other casualties.
On 1.12.47 details were received by the East Punjab Government of the cold-blooded murder of a large number of Sikh evacuees, all of them Government servants, who were stranded at Karor Pacca non-Muslim Evacuee Camp. The soldiers, of Pakistan Army separated Sikhs from other residents of the Camp, took them to sugarcane fields nearby and shot them dead there. The womenfolk of these unfortunate Sikhs were taken away by the Pakistan soldiers. It was stated that the above mentioned families were in the forcible detention of Mohammad Amin Khan Kanju of Karor Pacca, District Multan. The incident led to very strong protest to the West Punjab Government that such indiscriminate action towards Sikhs in Pakistan would not be tolerated any longer, and it may have serious repercussions in East Punjab and is likely to create a vicious circle which has been broken down with great difficulty.
No reply received from the West Punjab Government.
The following Press note was issued by the Ministry of States, New Delhi:-
In a recent Press statement issued from Karachi the Prime Minister of Bahawalpur complained that Sardar Valabhbhai Patel had singled out Bahawalpur for having caused grievous loss of life and property to non-Muslims.
The observations were made by Sardar Patel in the course of his reply to an earlier statement by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and must be read in their context.
In refutation of the charges made against the States of Patiala, Faridkot and Kapurthala, Sardar Patel had said that what happened in those States could not be isolated from the general flare-up, which had overtaken the East and West Punjab and for which not one single community or Government was entirely to blame.
Bahawalpur was mentioned in illustration of the ruthless extermination of minorities in the State which had acceded to Pakistan.
The non-Muslim population of Bahawalpur State, according to the 1941 census, was 2,40,000 which, allowing for normal increase, is now estimated to be about 2,70,000.
Of these between 70,000 and 80,000 recently had to eave the State as a result of the disturbances, the number left behind being stated to be in the neighbourhood of 70,000. This leaves over 1,00,000 persons unaccounted for.
Taken from the Lahore Diary published by the West Punjab Government, for August, 1947.
August 1. – Stabbing cases (3 Sikhs, 2 Muslims, 6 Hindus).
August 2. – 8 cases of arson in non-Muslim houses.
August 12. – 81 stabbing cases (34 Hindus, 41 Sikhs, 6 Muslims).
16 cases of arson. Mob attacks a train, killing 13, wounding 6.
August 13. – 39 stabbing cases, of which only 5 were Muslim victims.
August 14. – 60 non-Muslims stabbed.
August 15. – 47 non-Muslims killed. One Gurdwara burned.
August 22. – 80 Sikhs killed.
August 25. – 19 Sikhs killed.
August 26. – Sikhs and Hindus killed in train coming from Multan etc. etc.
List of Desecrated Temples and Gurdwaras in West Punjab.3
No Moorties exist in any temple.
All the undermentioned places of worship have been desecrated:
Talao Devi wala.
Rai Mool Singh.
Mal Chimni Bakhtewala.
Gurdwara Sarak Gondalian.
(b) Hindu Temples:
Majjhu di Chhapri.
Mandir Devi wala.
do Gali Bohar
All Hindu and Sikh places of worship in this District have been damaged, burned or desecrated.
All the undermentioned places of worship have been turned into mosques or desecrated by refugees:-
(a) Sikh Gurdwaras:
Gurdwara Bara Rail Bazar.
do Guru Bazar.
do Sant Ram (Douglaspura)
do Piara Singh (Harcharanpura)
do Bara Santpura.
do Pratap Nagar.
do Guru Nanakpura.
(b) Hindu Temples:
Mandir of Mahabir Ji (Karkhana Bazar)
do Gopi Vallabh ji.
Mandir of Raghu Nath Ji.
do Bawa Sita Ram ji.
do Guru Nanakpura.
do S. D. High School.
do Arya Samaj (Douglaspura)
do Arya Samaj (Congress wali)
do Arya Samaj (Montgomery Bazar)
In Sargodha City the Gurdwara of Block No. 3 which is a palatial building is used as Baitul Mal (Store) by Muslim Leaguers and one shop, which is part of the estate of this Gurdwara is used by a butcher for selling meat.
All Hindu temples and gurdwaras desecrated.
In Gurdwara Baba Jawala Singh no articles of worship remain. All sacred articles, relics, books etc. have been removed.
Doors and windows of several Gurdwaras have been removed and used as firewood.
Below are given some eye-witness accounts of the happenings in Rawalpindi District in March, 1947.
Dhamali (Tehsil Kahuta)
8.3.47. Owing to happenings elsewhere in the Tehsil the atmosphere at Dhamali was tense, and consequently 5 strong defensive posts were improvised at different points in the village. There were 15 men to defend each position. Persons were also deputed to guard the village. Further there were men kept in reserve for unforeseen emergencies.
9.3.47. At about 10 p.m. a band of about 1,500 raiders appeared. There was a mutual exchange of fire and 15 of the raiders were accounted for. The raiders took to their heels and the next day passed off peacefully.
11.3.47. A crowd of 4,000 appeared. They were mostly from the neighbouring villages, and there were also local Muslims. The Hindus and Sikhs acquitted themselves well and the raiders retreated to the neighbouring hills and knolls.
12.3.47. The raiders re-appeared in the evening of 12.3.47. There was a thick mass of many thousands. They started setting the village ablaze. There was also an exchange of rifle fire. The raiders offered terms through one Bakshi Balmokand, retired D. S. P., who was defending one of the village posts. The raiders demanded Rs. 14,000 and surrender of three rifles. Bakshi Balmokand paid an additional sum of Rs. 18,000 on behalf of Hindus. He also delivered to the raiders 3 rifles used by the Sikhs. The safety of Hindus was thus secured. This inevitably weakened the defence. The Sikhs then had to fight single-handed. A part of the raiders left late in the evening after despoiling and burning down the town.
13.3.47. The raiders appeared in still larger numbers at about 5 p.m. (according to some, they were about 20,000). It would seem that the numbers were swelled by those who had by that time completed their devastating work elsewhere, and could easily join the mob investing Dhamali village. The besieged with swords in their hands, rushed out; many of them were killed, while a few escaped with some injuries. The long drawn-out contest ended on the 13th. The casualties of the village were heavy and the number of those killed could not be less than 500. Dhamali is one of those villages which fought stubbornly and lost heavily. Their exploits have evoked general admiration. It is significant the police of Kalar police station and also the military in spite of repeated requests for succour did absolutely nothing for this brave village while it waged its heroic fight against overwhelming odds. Military lorries were rushing towards Kanoha which had already been finished but had no thought for Dhamali, which yet stood unharmed. Military lorries did not of course, reach Dhamali when it lay in ruins.
About 6 miles from Gujarkhan.
Hindu and Sikh population about 150, (Master Tara Singh’s birth-place).
8.3.47. Thick column of smoke rising into the sky from Bassali and Takht Pari villages alarmed the people.
9.3.47. About 10,000 raiders beating drums appeared. People fled in panic and hid themselves in gorges. Before the raiders appeared on the spot. 2 military lorries with Sub-Inspector of Police of Mandra and the Naib-Tehsildar, Gujarkhan, had visited the spot and panic-stricken people had repeatedly sought their help. No help was forthcoming. The raiders looted the village and burnt, it down. Master Tara Singh’s house received special attention at their hands and it was demolished with particular care and frenzied fury. Among those who were killed was Master Tara Singh’s uncle, Sardar Gokal Singh who served the cause of education for about 30 years, turning out of his school, of which he was the founder, hundreds of Muslim students. His second uncle Ram Chand was also killed. Hindus of the village suffered along with the Sikhs.
Bhai Gurbaksh Singh Granthi of Harial was reported to have been burnt alive in his house and about 20 persons of the village lost their lives.
Village about 6 miles from Gujarkhan. Non-Muslim population about 150.
This village is mostly populated by Brahmans.
9.3.47. It is reported that the Sub-Inspector of Police, Mandra, and the Naib-Tehsildar of Gujarkhan were approached for help to avert the impending raid. It is reported that their reply was that a compromise had been arrived at between the raiders and the people of Harial village and that Harnal should follow suit. Thus Harnal suffered like Harial without any official help. The village was looted and burnt down.
5 miles from Gujarkhan. Hindu and Sikh population about 200.
6.3.47 and 7.3.47. Egress from Dora was blocked by Muslims and care was taken that none should leave the village. To this end the local Muslims established their watch and ward system to see that there was no egress from the village.
2.3.47. A joint meeting of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims was held. On behalf of Muslims, Sikhs were told that those who proceeded to Gujarkhan would do go at the cost of their own lives, and that Hindu; and Sikhs must not leave the village and that Muslims would protect them.
10.3.47. Kesar Singh, Ajit Singh and Santokh Singh proceeded to Gujarkhan under cover of darkness, to seek succour in view of the imminent danger, but no help was available. They went back and by that time about 900 raiders had enveloped the place. The Sikhs assembled in the Gurdwara. Lambardar Mohd. Zaman demanded that they should either surrender their arms or deposit them in his house. At the third repetition of this demand, the Sikhs surrendered two of the kirpans and seemingly there was to be peace. But as soon as the guarrantor of peace went out he declared that the crowd of the raiders was thick, he could not help them and that they should look to their own safety. Two shots were fired from outside and the outskirts of the village were set on fire. The Sikhs and Hindus grew panicky, and ran to seek shelter in their own houses or in their friends’. Then the raiders looted the village and burnt it down. Four Sikhs and Hindus lost their lives. Mohd. Zaman, Lambardar was mentioned as a prominent author of the mischief.
6 miles from Gujarkhan. Sikh population about 200. 10.3.47. The local Muslims professedly mounted guard on Sikhs and averted that this was intended for their protection.
11.3.47. Mirza Mohd. Sadiq, Lambardar, suggested to Sikhs to vacate the village and run for their lives as he said there was great danger ahead and that Pathans were coming to loot the place. The Sikhs were yet getting ready when to their consternation they found the local Muslim coming out to loot them. In the evening there came raiders from other areas too and Sikhs sought refuge in the nearby gorges at night. The place was looted and burnt down by the raiders.
5 miles from Gujarkhan. Hindu and Sikh population about 200.
9.3.47. Qazian had been set on fire and hence-alarm was created at the place. The Muslims assured the Sikhs and Hindus of their goodwill and mounted guard for the night.
10-3-47. The danger of a raid was perceived to be imminent and therefore Sikhs and Hindus approached Sahibzada Rahmat Shah who had previously assured them of their protection. He said that he was helpless and they should escape if they could, in half an hour’s time. Therefore they met together in Kirpal Singh’s house.
In the meantime there appeared 2,000 raiders who started setting the place ablaze. The Sahibzada demanded that the Sikhs should surrender their arms and that he himself would escort them to Gujarkhan. The Sikhs refused to surrender arms; a grim fight was imminent when 3 good Muslims acted as mediators and brought about peace, and arms were surrendered.
The Sikhs and Hindus passed the night in a mosque and the next day they reached Gujarkhan. The village was looted and burnt. During the course of negotiations for peace after the surrender of arms, there was a loss of five lives. The names of those who lost their lives are :- 1. Kaniya Lal was burnt alive and his wife was wounded and killed. 2. A girl named Wanti was burnt alive. 3. A Sadhu was killed. 4. Prem Singh was hacked with a hatchet.
9 miles from Gujrakhan on the G. T. Road. It is a railway junction. Hindu and Sikh population 500.
7.3.47. A meeting was held. There was anti-Sikh and anti-Hindu propaganda. The atmosphere grew tense. There went about a rumour that Mandra would be set on fire.
9.3.47. Some prominent local Muslims, Qamar Zaman, Abdul Malik, Abdur Razaq, Subedar Gulzar Khan, assured the Hindus and Sikhs of their goodwill and exhorted them to open their shops. Faith was put in these assurances and Sikhs and Hindus opened their shops. The Muslim shop-keepers however, started clearing goods out of their shops. This created a strong suspicion regarding a plot to burn shops. At about 10 a.m. gangs of raiders began to pour in. They were about 2,000 in all. At 12.30 p.m. fire was started, panic was created and people took shelter in the local police station. The town was reported to be looted and burnt in the presence of the Police and the Military. They took no action. The Naib-Tehsildar of Gujarkhan is reported to have been at Mandra on the day and at the time of occurrence. Two Hindus are reported to have been burnt alive, while on 10.3.47, 3 Sikhs, 2 from Bassali and 1 from Harial are reported to have been killed at Mandra Railway Station.
4 miles from Gujarkhan. Hindu population about 225.
There had been plenty of anti-Sikh and anti-Hindu propaganda in the surrounding area and the whole atmosphere was full of tension even before 7.3.47.
7.3.47. In the evening Master Tek Chand who was proceeding to Rawalpindi was assaulted. A false news was circulated that Gujarkhan Sikhs had killed 26 Muslims boys and a prominent local Muslim was told that his son was one of them. There was considerable excitement.
8.3.47. There was a tense atmosphere and communal feelings were openly engendered and embittered.
9.3.47. Qazian was set on fire. This intensified the danger.
10.3.47. One thousand raiders appeared at night and slogans were shouted. Lal Khan of Dhok Kalrian threateningly showed his pistol and demanded a sum of Rs. 5,000. The Hindus said that they would pay to Lal Khan. Nobody came to Hindus during the rest of the night and the Hindus removed their families to the house of one Godar Khan in a nearby village. Godar Khan took good care of them.
11.3.47. Lal Khan came to Godar Khan’s house and demanded the Hindus’ conversion. The Hindus asked him to state exactly what he wanted. He demanded (a) The Muslim League flag to wave over the temple, (b) they should recite the Kalma and become Musalmans. The terms were accepted. Then the Hindus were required to kill a cow and eat beef. The Hindus hesitated and wavered. The Muslims looted and burnt the village. At Godar Khan’s intervention the killing of the cow was put off for a day. For two days and nights, Godar Khan took care of them and on 10.3.47 he escorted them to Gujarkhan and saved over 100 lives.
Hindu-Sikh population about 700.
About 1½ months before the occurrence, the danger was realized and the matter reported to the police. Mohd. Afzal of Takhti held a meeting of Muslims on 6.3.47, and Somundar of Pari said that 7,000 Pathan raiders were about to raid the town and that Sikhs and Hindus must vacate the town. Some of the surrounding villages had already, been looted and burnt. Many people left the village. Some of them were deprived of their valuables in the way. Two days before the raid the impending danger was reported at the police station but no action was taken. The raiders visited the town on 10.3.47 and it was looted and burnt. Thirteen Hindus and Sikhs lost their lives. About 178 persons took shelter at Dhok Budhal and the Muslims of that place dealt kindly with them and took good care of them.
11.3.47. Military lorries conveyed them to Rawat and on 12.3.47 they reached Gujarkhan. Banda, Bassali and Takhat Pari village were burnt down the same day.
11 miles from Gujarkhan, Hindu and Sikh population about 225.
9-3-47. About 2,500 raiders, many of them armed with rifles and some of them wearing steel helmets, after burning down Kanoha visited this village. The villagers fled and took shelter in the strongly built Gurdwara of Tapiana Sahib of Sant Attar Singh and in their absence the raiders looted and burnt down the village, and at leisure looted and carted the looted property and conveyed it to their homes for two days. There was only a brief encounter with the raiders and 3 Sikhs were killed. The raiders did encircle the Gurdwara but could not get into it. Military lorries arrived on 12.3.47 and they fired at the raiders and dispersed them.
5 miles from Gujarkhan, population 150 Sikhs and Brahmans.
8.3.47. There came 1,000 raiders beating drums. The youth of the village had joined this mob. There was none to put up a fight. The villagers fled, but were pursued and hunted out. The place was looted and burnt and most of the people were converted forcibly.
18 miles from Gujarkhan. Population 1,400, 600 Sikhs.
9.3.47. 1,500 raiders appeared.
10.3.47. The number of raiders swelled to about 2,000. The villagers improvised four strong positions. The raiders demanded their conversion and payment of Rs. 14,000.
12.3.47. The Sikh ladies in their extremity either committed suicide or entreated their husbands and fathers to kill them. This was done. Thus the ladies saved their honour. Most of the Hindus under Pressure accepted Islam. Only one of them, Hem Raj died fighting. There was much loss of life, but exact figures are not available. Only 30 Sikhs are reported to he alive.
Hindus and Sikhs about 350.
7.3.47. Jamadar Gulab Khan said to the audience in the local mosque as reported by Man Singh who was one of the audience: Khizar resigned on 3. 3. 47; now Pakistan has been established. The Qaid-Azam (Mr. Jinnah) commands that Hindus and Sikhs of your Ilaqa should be converted. Carry out this duty.
8-3-47. The imminent danger was repeatedly reported to the police but no action was taken.
8.3.47. Kuri Dalal was looted and burnt down.
10.3.47. The villagers took shelter in the Mandra police station.
The Mohemmedans sent word that as the village had harboured Hindus and Sikhs of Mankiala Brahman, therefore as a punitive measure the village should be raided. At this the villagers turned out S. Nanak Singh of Mankiala and his family. In spite of this a thick mass of raiders about 10,000 in number raided the village and the village was burnt and looted on 9.3.47.
4 miles from Gujarkhan. Sikh population about 300.
9.3.47. At about 4 p.m. about 1000 raiders visited the place and the villagers were asked to surrender their arms and thereby save their lives. Suspecting treachery, the villagers refused to lay down their arms and rot ready to resist them with 2 rifles, one pistol and brick-bats. The Police had been pre-informed of the impending occurrence but no action was taken. The contest lasted for 14 hours and 5 villagers lost their lives while the raiders lost about 10.
10-3-47. Military lorries evacuated them to Gujarkhan.
18 miles from Gujarkhan. Sikhs about 300.
7.3.47. A raid as anticipated, but Zaildar Mubarak Khan did nothing to avert it, or to help the villagers.
8.3.47. About 2,500 raiders appeared on the spot. The villagers collected on tops of two lofty houses and there was but feeble resistance on the part of the villagers. The village was looted and burnt down.
9-3-47. Military lorries evacuated the villagers to Gujarkhan and Rawalpindi.
About 15 miles from Gujarkhan, Sikh population about 800.
The resistance of this village reads like an epic. The raiders came in a thick mob, armed with guns, hatchets, spears, etc. It is reported that the villagers vacated their houses and the raiders finding the coast clear went into the shops and houses for loot; the villagers then encircled them and killed many of them. More raiders in overwhelming numbers arrived and the villagers took shelter in the mansion of the late Raja Sir Gurbakhsh Singh and exchanged fire with the raiders for two days. Military lorries came and dispersed the raiders. Full details, however, of the villagers’ fight which is reported to have been extremely stubborn, are not available. It is, however, freely mentioned, that thousands of raiders, like a cloud of locusts had invested the town. When the villagers had taken shelter in the mansion referred to above, the raiders found the field open for the usual loot and arson, and the village was looted and burnt.
Sikh population about 200. Adults about 35. Elderly persons 23.
There was some resistance. Four men were killed. The rest accepted conversion under pressure and they seemed to be much ashamed of themselves.
About 6 miles from Gujarkhan. Population 2,500 Sikhs. Hindus about 500.
10-3-47. At about 12 noon about 10,000 Muslim raiders from surrounding villages assembled in the Islamia School, Sukho, and sent for Chaudhries of the town. They demanded money for ransom, to spare the town. There were however, dissentients among Muslims who opined that the town must not be spared for money. No settlement was arrived at and the Chaudhries returned. Then the raiders, by beat of drum moved to Singh Sar, at about 4-30 p.m. On 9-3-47 the Deputy Commissioner, Rawalpindi was at Sukho and the people of Sukho brought home to him their impending danger. He sent some 15 British soldiers with guns to protect the town. At about 4-30 p.m. arrived the said Military picket. The raiders enveloped the Tommies but when the latter aimed their guns at them, the raiders gave way and made way for them. The raiders, even when the military was there, started setting fire to the outskirts of the town. A Gurdwara and School of Bedi Kaur Singh were set on fire. Two Gurdwaras were burnt and destroyed. About fifty houses were burnt down. The military never fired to drive away the raiders.
The people of Sukho in conjunction with the refugees from Banda put up a tough fight, after offering a fervent Ardas.4 They had improvised fourteen strong positions. They repulsed the raiders and accounted for about seventy-five men, wounding a much larger number. A few raiders hid themselves in a house and the Sukho people by accident or design set fire to the house.
Rakhshi Avtar Singh Kir, Subedar Kartar Singh and Lt. Gurbakhsh Singh did creditable work in defending the town, and saving the major part of the town and its inhabitants. The people of Sukho were inspired to heroic exploits by Sant Hari Singh of Pindi. He infused a heroic chivalric spirit in all. The story of Sukho reads like an epic. Sant Hari Singh was constantly reciting Sukhmani Sahib, and inspiring them. The town of Sukho is intact and defied all danger till September, when people were evacuated to India.
Atrocities committed on Sikhs and Hindus in West Punjab, admitted by the West Punjab Government in their official publication:
(Actual words from Sikhs in Action have been quoted below).
An evacuee train carrying non-Muslim refugees from Rawalpindi was derailed near Lahore; a refugee convoy in trucks was held up by some Pathans near the Ravi Bridge and two5 of the refugees killed.
Four non-Muslims were killed at the Lahore Station and 12 near Moghulpura.
The next day (22-9-47) the non-Muslim refugee train berthed at Moghulpura was attacked and 32 people were killed.
There were isolated stabbings in Rawalpindi (in September); sixty non-Muslims were killed on the 11th and 14 on the 24th. A Muslim mob in Multan Cantonment attacked lorries carrying non-Muslims.
On the following day; (3-9-47), several villages in P. S. Sadar Multan were looted by a Muslim mob, and on the 5th 300 Hindus were killed near Shujabad.
A non-Muslim Refugee convoy was attacked near Arifwala. A convoy of Sikhs and Hindus was looted on the 22nd near Pakpattan.
There were attacks on non-Muslims in Sargodha, Mianwali, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, Attock and Campbellpore and on many of these occasions, the Pathans joined the local riff-raff in looting.
In Gujranwala a train carrying non-Muslims refugees was attacked by a mob, at Kamoke on the 24th. Three hundred Hindus and Sikhs were killed.
Two trains were derailed by mobs, near Wazirabad on 26th and 27th.
Table of illicit arms recovered from Muslims by the Punjab Police.
There are 28 entries against which in the Religion Column of the individuals involved ‘not known’ is entered. These are doubtless cases of recovery from Muslims, which are deliberately left unspecified by the investigating officer.
NOTE :– The Police being overwhelmingly Muslim, very few recoveries arms were made from Muslims, and fewer still were recorded.
LIST OF INCIDENTS AND ATROCITIES DONE TO SIKHS AND HINDUS.
NOTE :- This list must be studied with this caution fully kept in mind:-
1. It is not full-not as a matter of fact more than a small fraction of what actually happened in Western Pakistan. Spread out such happenings a hundred-fold or more, and you will perhaps get the right proportions. These are only a few available statements of refugees in Amritsar Camps. These refugees would be not more than one per cent of the total number of Hindu and Sikh refugees. And these statements do not even cover all these refugees, but have been picked out of the tales of a few, almost at random. But they are representative of the character of what happened everywhere in West Punjab and other parts of Western Pakistan.
(2) The dates given alongside of each occurrence, the character of the assailants and the nature of atrocities have their own moral to reveal. These attacks occurred in two waves, everywhere simultaneously – first in March, 1947 and then near about August, 1947.
(There was also a widespread attack in the Frontier Province in December, 1946 and January, 1947.)
(b) Muslim Police, Military and Officials fully helped and even led the assailants.
(c) No barbarities and indignities were spared to the unfortunate victims.
2The Frontier Red Shirts or Khudai Khidmatgars.
3Shri Mohan Lal Saksena stated in the Indian Parliament on 22.l.’50 that 800 places of worship (Sikh and Hindu) were reported demolished in Pakistan.
513 dead bodies of victims of this attack were shown to Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Health Minister of India, at Amristar. (Present writer’s note).