Joti Jot, Patshahi Fourth, Guru Amar Das Ji.
==> GURU AMAR DAS (1479-1574), the seventy-three years old disciple who had distinguished himself for his humility and simplicity in Guru Angad's holy company was nominated Guru in 1552.
Born of orthodox Hindu parents in Baserke, a Punjab village, in Vaisakh sudhi 14th sunmat 1536 (May 5, 1479) to father TaejBhan and mother Sulakhani, Guru Amar Das married Srimatti Mansa Devi Ji on Magh 11th sunmat 1559. The marriage resulted in two daughters, Bibi Dani and Bhani, and two sons, Baba Mohan and Mohari.
Guru Amar Das was a great pilgrim. Once he happened to listen to a rapturous chanting of Guru Nanak's Japji by Bibi Amro, Guru Angad's daughter and his nephew's wife. He was so much enthralled by its supernal note that he repaired instantly to Guru Angad, the Second Master. He spent about 12 years, from 1540 to 1552 in selfless service and deep meditation, amidst an aura of holiness and splendor radiating from his beloved Guru. Amar Dass became a sikh of Guru Angad Patshah in sunmat 1597 and ascended to Guru Gadhi on Vaisakh 3rd sunmat 1609.
While expounding the gospel of Guru Nanak, the Third Master laid special stress on the service of the Guru and contemplation of the Lord's Name. He asserted that man could attain "Sahaj" (tranquility) through the path of the holy name. All doubts disappear and he attains Ananda (bliss) a stage achieved by the Bhakts through God-realization. He also held that these values could be acquired only through the Guru's grace.
During the 22 years of his ministry, Guru Amar Das took quite a few significant measures to consolidate the Sikh religion, as also to endear it to the masses of men. To widen the scope of the movement, he made Goindwal his missionary centre. Here he caused a big "bavalli" (a sort of well) dug and organized festivals on the occasion of "Deepavall" and "Baisakhi". A large number of Sikhs from far-flung places flocked to Goindwal. Indeed it became the first place of pilgrimage.
Besides, the Guru set up twenty-two manjis, or dioceses in different parts of the country where Sikhism had taken roots. Each Manji was placed under the charge of a pious Sikh with whose effort the Sikh Sangats (congregations) met daily and chanted the Guru's hymns.
The Third Master invested the institution of langar with a kind of inviolable sanctity. Thus, no one could, have darshan of the Guru without first partaking of food in the langar. This had the desired effect of proclaiming and establishing the essential equality of all mankind. In the Guru's Temple of Bread, the rich and the poor, the high-born and the untouchable, ate together as members of an integrated human family. The Guru also fought other rampant social evils like "Sati", drink and Purdah. With a view to marking out the Sikhs as a distinct people, Guru Amar Das prescribed a set of rites to be followed on occasions such as birth and death. The Guru also visited Hindu cities of pilgrimage and there, too, he propagated the gospel of Guru Nanak.
Guru Amar Das Patshah left for heavenly abode on Bhado Sudi 15 sunmat 1631 (Sept. 1, 1574 after serving 22 years, 5 months, and 23 days as teh third Guru of GurSikhism.
"Guru Amar Dass Jini Saewiyo Tin Dukh Darad Parhar Parae"
(sawia M. 3 Kae)
-Ref. "Guru Granth Ratnavali," (pp. 142) by Dr. D.S. Mani, Sardar Bakhshish Singh, and Dr. Gurdit Singh
Mahan Kosh (pp. 74)
Baba Buddha Ji passed away.
==> BABA BUDHA JI: born on 7 katak sanmat 1563 at Kathunangal (Dist. Amritsar) to father Sudhae and mother Gora. Parents named the child as Budda. In sanmat 1574, Guru Nanak Dev Ji visited Kathunangal village. While grazing cattle, Budda met Guru Nanak and served milk in sewa. During their conversation, Guru Nanak declared that though young in age, he was "Budha" in terms of understanding and wisdom. Since then he came to known as Budha.
Budha adopted Sikh faith and lived an exemplary GurSikh living. As a result he came to respectfully known as "Baba Budha" and righteously earned some of the highest Gurughar honors. In sanmat 1661, he was bestowed the honor of being the first Granthi (head priest) of the holy Harminder Sahib after installation of the holy Guru Granth Sahib there for the first time. He had the privilege to serve, enjoy the company, and receive blessing of first six Gurus. Guru Har Gobind Sahib learned gurmukhi from Baba Budha. Since Guru Angad Dev Ji period and until Guru Har Gobind Sahib, Baba Budha was responsible for tilak during the gur gadhi ceremonies.
Finally on 18 Maghar Sanmat 1688, Baba Budha Ji passed away in village Ramdas (Dist. Amritsar). Guru Har Gobind personally conducted the cremation and last rituals. At the place of cremation, a beautiful Mandir named "SachKhand", was established.
Since Sujan Singh Ji did not have any children, Baba Budha's Gadhi came under the control of Udasi Pracharaks, which is as follows:
Raghudas, who became Raghubir Singh after partaking Amrit. Raghubir Singh was the last Mahant after whom the control was passed onto the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandak Committee.
Present generations from Baba Buddha's brothers still flourish in Badhae Ramdaspurae.
A friendship treaty was signed between Khalsa Darbar and the China ruler Lama Guru Lasa. This treaty was signed during Maharaja Sher Singh's reign.
Dalip Singh was enthroned as the Maharaja of Punjab. This only happened after some serious internal fighting for successsion, upon the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh on June 22, 1839.
Hira Singh won support of the army and stormed the fort. Sandalwallia Sardars Lehna Singh, Ajit Singh and other conspirators were murdered. Troops looted Lahore city. Bhai Gurmukh Singh and Misr Beli Ram were also murdered. Dalip Singh aged 5 years made ruler. Hira Singh became the Wazir in place of Dhian Singh. And some order restored in the capital.
==> SHER SINGH, son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and Maharani Metab Kaur was coronated at the age of 14. He was born in 1807 and assumed Lahore rule after Kaur Naunihal Singh. But he was killed on 15th Sept. 1843, along with his infant child Partap Singh, by Ajit Singh and Lehna Singh Sandhawalia.
-Ref. Mahan Kosh
==> Maharaja DALIP SINGH, the youngest son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who was born in Lahore, on Feb. 1837, to mother Maharani Jind Kaur. His date of birth is disputed by some and alternately suggested as Sept. 4, 1838. Many foreign journalists have wrongly named him as Dhalip Singh and Duleep Singh. However, it should be noted that his correct name is Maharaja Dalip Singh. He assumed the Punjab throne as a child, after Maharaja Sher Singh, on Sept. 18, 1843. During his reign several wars were fought with the British. Unfortunately, he was surrounded by corrupt advisors as illustrated by the following quote.
"Among the Sikh barons who stood around the throne of the young Maharaja Dalip Singh, there was not one, who honestly labored for his country, or who have made the smallest sacrifice to save her."
- The Punjab Chiefs by L.H. Griffin
The agreement of March 9, 1846, after the first Sikh war with the British, included the following conditions:
- There shall be peace and friendship among Maharaja Dalip Singh and the British government.
- Lahore darbar would have to relinquish control of the region between Satluj and Bias.
- War compensation of one and a half crore rupees to be paid by Lahore darbar. Since this amount was beyond the capabilities of Lahore Darbar at that time, Kashmir region was offered for 75 lakhs. However, Maharaja Gulab Singh stepped forward and paid this amount to buy back this region from the British.
- Maharaja Dalip Singh's forces were restricted to 50 platoons and 12,000 horse-back soldiers.
- No foreigner from Britain, Europe, or America could be employed in Lahore Darbar without explicit permission of the British government.
- British government shall refrain from interference in the internal affairs of the Lahore Darbar.
However, towards the end of this year, another set of arrangements were made, under which a council was established to run the Punjab affairs. This council was headed by a British Resident. Further, British forces were brought in to maintain peace in the country. Lahore darbar was charged 22 lakh annually for the maintenance and upkeep of such forces.
However, this arrangement did not last for too long. As in April of 1848, a war erupted among the Sikhs and British. At the end of this war, Sikh kingdom was annexed and Maharaja Dalip Singh was sent out of Punjab to FatehGadh (Uttar Pradesh, dist. Karrukhsbad) under the care of Sir John Spencer Login.
Maharaja Dalip Singh was still a child at the time of the annexation of Punjab and there was no one to dispense any religious education to him. His companions (AudiyaPrasad, Purohit GulabRai, Fakir Jahurudeen) had absolutely no interest or sympathy with GurSikh Dharam. As a result, BhajanLal, a local resident brahmin who had converted to christianity, was given the responsibilities of Dalip Singh's education. Under his influence, Maharaja Dalip Singh adopted christianity on March 8, 1853. A few days prior to adopting christianity, Dalip Singh had presented his hair as a gift to lady Login.
On April 19, 1858, Dalip Singh left for England and started residing at Elveden resident in Norfolk. Dalip Singh married a german lady, Bamba Muller (educated form Cairo missionary school) on June 7, 1864. This marriage resulted in three sons (Victor Dalip Singh, Frederick D.S., and Edward D.S.) and three daughters. Two of his sons were brought up as english gentlemen. The elder, Prince Victor, held a commission in the 1st Royal Dragoons and married a daughter of the Earl of Coventry. He died in 1918 at the age of 58. The younger brother, Prince Frederick was educated at Eton and Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he took history Tripos and later took his M.A. He held a commission in the Suffolk Yeomanry and then transferred to the Norfolk Yeomanry. He resigned his commission in 1909 but rejoined the corps in 1914 and was two years on active service in France. He was awarded the Territorial Decoration. Prince Frederick was deeply interested in archaeology and became a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and contributed articles to various periodicals on this subject. He died in August 1926, at the age of 58. One of Maharaja's daughters married Dr. Sutherland, lived in Lahore, and was popularly known after her parents as Princess Bamba Sutherland.
Maharani Bamba died in 1890. Later, Maharaja Dalip Singh married an english lady, A.D. Etherill, who lived after Maharaja's death. Maharaja's later years were extremely difficult. He was barred from returning to Punjab, and his pension severed. He died pretty much as an orphan, in Oct. 22, 1893 in Grand Hotel of Paris.
-Ref. Mahan Kosh
The Anglo-Sikh wars resulted in ultimate liquidation of the Sikh power, and on 30th March, 1849, Maharaja Ranjit Singh's short lived kingdom was annexed by the British. Maharaja Dalip Singh was taken away to Fatehgarh in the U.P., and put under the tutelage of Sir John Login of the Bengal Army., with the result that after two years the young Maharaja expressed desire to renounce his faith and embrace Christianity. He was baptised, granted a pension, sent to England and given an estate in Suffolk. The married Bamba Muller, daughter of a European merchant and an Abyssinian mother.
Maharani Bamba spoke and understood only Arabic, and in the beginning the Maharaja had amusing difficulties when attempting to converse with his fiancee. She bore him Prince Victor Dalip Singh, (b. 1866, d. 1918), Prince Fredrick Dalip Singh (b. 1886, d. 1926), Princess Bamba Jindan (b. 1869, d. 1957), Princess Katherine, Prince Albert Edward Dalip Singh (b. 1879, d. 1893), and Princess Sophia Alexandria (b. 1874, d. 1948). The children of Maharaja Dalip Singh died issueless. Dalip Singh came to India twice and was reconverted to his paternal faith. In 1886 he made an attempt to leave England for good and settle down in Punjab, but his attempt failed and he was not allowed to proceed beyond Aden. He did not return to England and died in Paris in 1893.
Princess Bamba Dalip Singh, who later married an English gentleman Dr. Sutherland, continued to keep in her custody the collection of paintings and objects of arts, belonging to her father. She died in Lahore on March 10, 1957, without having any issue, and thus her death ended the line of the Sikh ruling dynasty. She bequeathed the collections to Pir Karim Bakhsh Supra of Lahore who sold it recently to the Government of Pakistan.
The collection consists of 18 oil paintings, 14 water colours, 22 ivory paintings, 17 photographs, 10 metallic objects and 7 miscellaneous articles.
-Ref. "The Princess Bamba Collection" an official publication of Department of Archeology, Pakistan
"Sikh Portraits by European Artists," by F.S. Aijazuddin, a comprehensive source of textual and visual information on the Princess Bamba Collection (Karachi: Oxford Univ. Press)
Maharaja Dalip Singh's life is a tragedy in the true sense of the word. He was born with a silver spoon in his mouth, but died very poor in a hotel in Paris.
Most people do not know that he wanted to reclaim his kingdom by launching a war against the British. Although he had become Chritain at one time, yet he re-entered Khalsa Panth by taking Khade di Pahul (amrit).
Maharaja wrote the following letter to Sardar Sant Singh who was his relative from his mother's side. Here is the text of the letter:
Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S. W.
March 9th, 1886
My Dear Sirdar Ji,
Wah ! Gooroo ji dee Futteh.
I am pleased to receive your letter, but I advise you not to come near me without the permission of Government as you might get into trouble with the authorities.
I intend to leave England with my family on the 31st of this month, but it is possible a little longer delay may occur.
I need not tell you how pleased I shall be (if the Government permits) for you to be present at my receiving Powhl [Amrit] which I trust my cousin Thakur Singh Sindhaanwalla will administer to me.
I am now longing to return to India although Government are afraid to let me reside in the North Western Provinces and desire me to live at Ootakamand, but I put my faith entirely in Sutgooroo who now that I turn to Him for forgivenss I know will forsake me.
Your sincere friend and welwisher
Note: Maharaja Dalip Singh stayed sometime in Aden. During his stay at Aden, the Maharaja Dalip Singh was baptised and re-entered the Sikh faith. He was baptised on May 26, 1886. There is a photograph of Maharaja with full beard (which is tied back) and beutiful uniform and turban. In this picture he looks very handsome and a true Maharaja. This picture must have taken when he was around 35-40. This picture is not the one that most of us have seen where the handsome Maharaja is standing with a sword in his right hand.
-Ref. "History of Freedom Movement in the Punjab - Maharaja Duleep Singh Correspondence, Vol III," published by Punjabi University Patiala.
Khalsa College Amritsar potests against harrassment of Bhindranwala.
The students of Khalsa College Amritsar held a protest rally against the harassment of Jarnail Singh Bhindranwala. The police cane-charged the students and wounded a large number of them. The police entered the college premises and arrested more than 40 teachers and students. According to the President of the University Teachers' Association "the police ran amuck" According to the pro-Government managing body of the College, the police had shown "high-handedness and insane violence which is a slur on the name of free society."
Bhindrawalae announced that he would offer himself for arrest at Chowk Mehta at 1.00pm on September 20. Amrik Singh of the Sikh Students deferation made a public statement that police wanted to liquidate Jarnail Singh Bhindrawalae.