BHIKHAN (1480-1573), a medieval Indian saint two of whose hymns are included in the Guru Granth Sahib. There are in fact two saints of that time sharing the same name— Bhakta Bhikhan and Bhikhan the Sufi. Bhakta Bhikhan was a devotee in the tradition of Ravidãs and Dhannã. He was born at Kakori near Lucknow in present day Uttar Pardesh state. His hymns in the Guru Granth Sãhib reflect his dedication to the Name of Hari (God) which he describes as "cure for all ills of the world."
Bhagat Bhikhan was the most learnt of the learned men of the time of Emperor Akbar. For many years, he was engaged in teaching and instructing the people. He stated that this spiritual succession was from Mir Saiyid Ibrahim of Irij. He left several children who were adorned with piety, wisdom, knowledge and virtue. The hymns of Bhagat Bhikan ji resemble those of Sheikh Farid
Medicine of the Name Divine in the mouth he pours and yama’s (demon) noose snaps.In the Sikh thought, householder’s life enjoys a place of prominence because only a householder can aspire to live with others in a spirit of humility, mutual understanding, cooperation and coexistence. The feeling of fraternity is also connected with the house holder’s life, and as a result of it the house holder’s life has been accepted as the ideal way to realize the ideal of service and remembrance of the Divine. All the contributors to the Guru Granth Sahib advocated this point of view, and bhagat Nizamuddin Bhikhan is one of these contributors.
Bhikhan belonged to the Lucknow region in the Uttar Pradesh. He was born in AD 1480 in Kakeri town. He was the disciple of Syed Pir Ibrahim from whom he learnt the lesson in spiritual and moral values.
Bhikhan, a medieval Indian Sufi saint (A monastic sect of Muslims), lived a very simple life guided by pious and high thinking. Bidauni, an historian contemporary of emperor Akbar, writes of Bhikhan that he was the greatest among scholars, but inspite of this he used to call himself Kari, i.e., a student or learner. Such a humble pseudonym (assumed name) reflects the humility of his heart. On the whole, the life of Bhikhan was the life of an ideal house holder. Being a great scholar and intellectual, Bhikhan’s fame spread far and wide. Soon he came under the influence of Bhakti movement and thus became a bitter critic of futile superstitions and formalism. Religious label was no more of any importance for him. He devoted himself completely to the One Lord. To him, Divine Name was the Panacea for all human maladies. Thus, he came to develop a deep faith and devotion in the Absolute One. He was strongly against retaining difference in one’s profession and practice. According to him, one who has to reach the Divine Portal must drink the nectar of Divine Name.Following is the complete hymn in this context
Two hymns of Bhikhan are included in the Guru Granth Sahib on Page 659. The essence of these hymns is that it is man’s deeds that cause him suffering and discontentment. Caught in the web of Maya (wealth) and love for his body, man is engaged in adding patches like mending the shoe. He can secure liberation from such a situation only if God bestows His grace on him. Then the path to liberation will become open to him. Divine grace is certainly bestowed on him provided he remembers the Lord-Curer of all ills of the world.
In his second hymn which begins by calling Name a priceless jewel, Bhikhan describes the effect of Naam-Simran (remembrance of Divine Name) on man’s body, soul and mind. The taste of Name is indescribable, says Bhikhan, just as a dumb man cannot explain the taste of sweets. Reciting His Name provides comfort and joy to the tongue, and remembering Him is comforting for the mind. Bhikhan says that his eyes have experienced a strange coolth by remembering the Lord: now whichever direction he looks to, he perceives the Almighty Lord. This Hymn, reads as follows:
In both these hymns is found expressed the multi-faceted admiration of Name. The essence of his faith in the significance of Name is identical with the thought expressed in the following verse of the Gurus:
Some scholars are under the mistaken belief that these two hymns as included in the Scripture in the name of Bhikhan are in fact by Syed Bhikhan Shah, a holy-man who spent most of his time in the village of Ghuram, near Patiala. A tomb also stands erected there in his memory. Pir Bhikhan Shah of Ghuram had been a contemporary of Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh. As the tradition goes, Bhikhan Shah was performing his Namaz (Muslim prayer) facing west when he learnt of the birth of Guru Gobind Singh, and on learning this he immediately turned eastward (towards Patna) to pay obeisance to the newly born Guru.
No doubt, Pir Bhikhan Shah was a sufi saint of high spiritual merit, but none of his verses is included in the Sikh Scripture. The holy-man whose hymns are included in the Guru Granth Sahib has been Bhagat Bhikhan who was born at Kakeri in Uttar Pradesh and about whom it is said that although he was Bhikhan by name yet he had the heart of an emperor. Eulogy of God was his profession. He had complete control over his senses, and remained ever absorbed in Divine Name.
Bhagat Bhikhan breathed his last in 1631 Bikrami (1574-A.D.), the time when Guru Ram Das occupied the spiritual throne of Guru Nanak.