|1929||Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw bombs in Legislative Assembly, Delhi.
Two representatives of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt, entered unnoticed in the Legislative and threw two bombs towards the seats occupied by government officials and supporters. For this, on 23 march, 1931 Bhagat Singh was hanged to death in the Lahore central jail along with Shivram Rajguru and Sukhdeo.
==> Shaheed BHAGAT SINGH: was one of the leader Sikh revolutionaries of the early 20th century who earned the fame of causing explosion in the Legislative Assembly in Delhi and of committing daring acts of killing British Police Officers. He and his associates were hanged on March 23rd of 1931. Their bodies were secretly cremated on the bank of the Satluj river near Ferozpur. The associated secrecy was to avoid public outcry and any subsequent outburst of violence.
Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh met Bhagat Singh on October 4, 1930 in the Lahore jail. Both were being kept in the same jail and on this day Bhai Sahib was being released. This meeting was secretly arranged after great difficulty. Bhagat Singh wanted to see Bhai Sahib for a long time, but couldn’t because of Bhai Sahib’s refusal to see him in clean-shaven form. He was instructed by Bhai Sahib to keep long hair as demanded of GurSikhs. Bhagat Singh did exactly that. Further he apologized stating he was mistakenly misled by some people to believe that he could do certain things only if he was clean-shaven. Bhagat Singh also stated that if he had been a Sikh with flowing beard and long hair, the Hindu press would not have talked about his sacrifice. He further clarified that he did not actually kill Saunders. However, he admitted to the crime when accused, simply to take the credit.
Bhai Sahib reiterated the story of Bhai Nidhan Singh Chughewale, a well-known patriot, who had recruited people from many different islands and places to fight the British. The government knew of him had circulated posters throughout India with his picture. Bhai Nidhan Singh’s brother once suggested that he color his beard to disguise his identity. Bhai Nidhan Singh flatly refused this suggestion saying whatever he would do will be carried out without any disguise. He advised them not to instill any fear in him, as a GurSikh is always fearless. True to his principles, Bhai Nidhan Singh accomplished many remarkable things without changing the color of his hair or employing any other disguise.
Bhagat Singh declared his awareness that he was going to die anyway and promised to adhere by GurSikh living. Bhagat Singh died as a Sikh.
According to the Granthi of Kasur, Bhai Natha Singh, when Bhagat Singh’s body was cremated, his hair were about six inches long. By looking at the photo, the hair actually look lot longer. The newspapers discussed in their columns that he was in fact a believer in Sikhism. His last photograph was taken only a few minutes before he was hanged which showed his hair tied in a knot over his head and beard on his face. He is sitting on a cot in the central jail of Lahore at that time. That is where he was hanged. The photograph was taken by a gentleman named Sohan Lal from Delhi. The government also declared that his body was cremated according to the Sikh tradition.
-Ref. Jehal Chitthian (Jail letters) by Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh
April 8, 1929, two representatives of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt, entered unnoticed the assembly chamber and threw two bombs towards the seats occupied by government officials and supporters. With deafening sound the bombs exploded and covered the hall with dense smoke. The benches near which the bombs fail were broken to pieces, and a portion of the floor was also hollowed out. But except for minor scratches to a few no one received any injury. On 23 march, 1931 Bhagat Singh along with Shivram Rajguru and Sukhdeo was hanged to death in the Lahore central jail.
Bhagat Singh’s faith was in mass action for the masses. In Bhagat Singh’s own words we attach great sanctity to human life, we regard human life as sacred as any one else could. We would sooner lay down our lives in the service of humanity than injure any one else . revolution doesn’t necessarily involve a sanguinary strife, nor is there any place in it for individual vendetta.
Bhagat Singh believed that the Congress consisted as it was of landlords, capitalists and rich lawyers could never launch that action which would lead to complete economic freedom for the masses. Gandhiji is kind hearted philanthropists, he used to say, and it is not philanthrophy that is needed, but a dynamic scientific social force. According to him what was needed most was a band of selfless young men who would organize and work for that social revolution. He further believed that in order to initiate the young men in the gospel of this mission, an appeal would have force only when it was delivered from the platform of the gallows and he himself undertook to deliver that appeal.
There was ample opportunity for both of them to make good their escape from the assembly. It was part of a deliberate plan to surrender themselves to the police so that they might be able to expand the revolutionary creed and philosophy by means of a statement in the court. Again to quote Bhagat Singh We then deliberately offered ourselves to bear the penalty for what we had done and to let the Imperialist exploiters know that by crushing individuals they cannot kill ideas. By crushing two insignificant units the nation cannot be crushed. The occasion was also judiciously chosen. By throwing the bombs when the British government was trying to pass the much hated Trade dispute bill, Bhagat Singh and his colleagues also declared their solidarity with the labor class. Bhagat Singh was an avid reader of politics and history and this also shows up in his speech. Below are excerpts from his statement given in the court.
Excerpts From Bhagat Singh
|1938||Karam Singh Jhingar dies on the last day his improsonment.|
|1982||Akali Agitation initiated for the Waters Issue: Satluj-Yamuna link.
Indira Ghandi laid the foundation stone for the Satluj-Yamuna link in Kapuri. Since this link was against the Sikh interests, Akali’s initaited a protest agitation and seek fair resolution of the waters issue. Sikhs are mainly farmers and as such they depend mostly on agriculture. There are a small number of tubewells in the Punjab but the people depend mostly upon the rivers of the Province. Since 1966 the Indian Government had usurped the power for distribution of the water of the Punjab rivers. This had never happened in any other province and was done merely to benefit Haryana, Delhi and Rajasthan farmers at the cost of the Sikh farmers of the Punjab. The Akali Party during their regime, had referred the case to the highest judicial court of India, i.e. the Supreme Court, but when the Sikh Party, the Akali Dal, lost power in the Punjab, the Hindu-led Government immediately withdrew the case from the judiciary and referred it to Indira Gandhi for adjudication. Indira Gandhi decided the case in favour of the Hindus. The Akali Party demanded that the Sikhs should not be discriminated against by the Hindus. It is strange to note that the Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, had lost faith even in the highest judicial Court of India as she was not willing to refer the case to its own Supreme Court. The Akali Party decided to start an agitation with regard to this issue. In the meantime Indira Gandhi decided to punish the Sikhs. She inaugurated the digging of a Canal to take Punjab water to Haryana. The Akalis decided to start a peaceful agitation from April 8, l982. The first batch of Akalis was arrested on April 8 and from April 24, regular batches started courting arrest. In spite of the Akali agitation, Indira Gandhi refused to act.
-Ref. THE SIKHS’ STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective By Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon. Edited By: A.T. Kerr Page 110-119